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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Characteristics, Mechanisms, and Health Implications of Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia

Characteristics, Mechanisms, and Health Implications of Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia   Reference library

Laura D. Ellingson and Christopher D. Black

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
9,381 words
Illustration(s):
1

...amplitude a person is willing to tolerate. Studies have also employed ratings of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness to thermal stimuli, often by applying multiple suprathreshold temperatures ( Ellingson, Koltyn, Kim, & Cook,, 2014 ) or using prolonged cold water submersion, known as the cold pressor task ( Foxen-Craft & Dahlquist, 2017 ). When assessed in this manner, EIH manifests as a reduction in the ratings of intensity and unpleasantness to a given temperature. Effects of Type, Intensity, and Duration of Exercise on EIH EIH has been shown to occur...

Psychological Resilience and Adversarial Growth in Sport and Performance

Psychological Resilience and Adversarial Growth in Sport and Performance   Reference library

David Fletcher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
15,149 words
Illustration(s):
1

...needs to be considered contextually and defined in relation to the general population and/or the subpopulation of athletes. To elaborate and illustrate, although a common cold is likely to be a stressor for most people it is unlikely to be considered an adversity, whereas for an elite athlete about to perform in the most important competition of his or her life, a common cold is likely to elicit a significant negative response in most elite athletes and therefore would meet the criteria for an adversity in this subpopulation. Early Life Versus Later Career...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in North America

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in North America   Reference library

Vincent J. Granito

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...with historical examination of any profession: being influenced by the context of the general history in which the event took place. For example, in the 1960s, when sport psychology experienced its greatest growth spurt, North American history was being heavily shaped by the Cold War and its rivalry with the Soviet Union. During this time, the progression of sport psychology, especially in the United States, was spurred on by the superior approach of Russian sport psychologists that culminated in the success of Soviet athletes at the 1976 Olympic Games (...

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