You are looking at 1-20 of 105 entries  for:

  • All: Cold War x
  • Medicine and health x
clear all

View:

Overview

Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Goldilocks effect

Goldilocks effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Beth B(owman) Hess ( 1928–2003 ) and Joan M. Waring (born 1943 ) in a chapter in a book entitled Child Influences on Marital and Family Interaction ( 1978 ), referring to the optimal level of contact with kin that satisfies married people without interfering with their marital relationship. See also anthropic principle . [From the episode in the fairy tale Goldilocks and the Three Bears when Goldilocks tastes the porridge of the small bear and finds it ‘neither too hot nor too cold, but just right; and she liked it so well that she ate it...

Characteristics, Mechanisms, and Health Implications of Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia

Characteristics, Mechanisms, and Health Implications of Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia   Reference library

Laura D. Ellingson and Christopher D. Black

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
9,381 words
Illustration(s):
1

...amplitude a person is willing to tolerate. Studies have also employed ratings of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness to thermal stimuli, often by applying multiple suprathreshold temperatures ( Ellingson, Koltyn, Kim, & Cook,, 2014 ) or using prolonged cold water submersion, known as the cold pressor task ( Foxen-Craft & Dahlquist, 2017 ). When assessed in this manner, EIH manifests as a reduction in the ratings of intensity and unpleasantness to a given temperature. Effects of Type, Intensity, and Duration of Exercise on EIH EIH has been shown to occur...

Psychological Resilience and Adversarial Growth in Sport and Performance

Psychological Resilience and Adversarial Growth in Sport and Performance   Reference library

David Fletcher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
15,149 words
Illustration(s):
1

...needs to be considered contextually and defined in relation to the general population and/or the subpopulation of athletes. To elaborate and illustrate, although a common cold is likely to be a stressor for most people it is unlikely to be considered an adversity, whereas for an elite athlete about to perform in the most important competition of his or her life, a common cold is likely to elicit a significant negative response in most elite athletes and therefore would meet the criteria for an adversity in this subpopulation. Early Life Versus Later Career...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in North America

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in North America   Reference library

Vincent J. Granito

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...with historical examination of any profession: being influenced by the context of the general history in which the event took place. For example, in the 1960s, when sport psychology experienced its greatest growth spurt, North American history was being heavily shaped by the Cold War and its rivalry with the Soviet Union. During this time, the progression of sport psychology, especially in the United States, was spurred on by the superior approach of Russian sport psychologists that culminated in the success of Soviet athletes at the 1976 Olympic Games (...

Berkner, Lloyd

Berkner, Lloyd (1905–1967)   Reference library

Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...period, he worked on the installation of an automatic ionospheric sounder. During World War II, Berkner, a naval reserve officer, supervised aviation electronics engineering with the Radio and Engineering Group within the Engineering division of the U.S. Navy’s Bureau of Aeronautics, including the procurement of newly developed radar systems for naval aircraft. This national security involvement continued after the war. Berkner played a major role during the Cold War using the resources of the national security state to advance science and engineering....

Muller, Hermann J.

Muller, Hermann J. (1890–1967)   Reference library

Jenny Bangham

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and Muller left the Soviet Union—first for the Spanish Civil War and then for a research job in Edinburgh. At the outbreak of World War II, Muller moved once again back to the United States, where, helped by the Rockefeller Foundation and many eminent and sympathetic colleagues, he finally joined the staff of Indiana University, where he remained for the rest of his career. The atomic age brought new attention to Muller’s genetic research and political activism. Although embroiled in Cold War politics—on one hand an outspoken critic of Stalin and on the...

Atomic Energy Commission

Atomic Energy Commission   Reference library

J. Samuel Walker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... ( 1899–1981 ), a former director of the Tennessee Valley Authority, became its first chairman. As the Cold War progressed, the agency focused its resources on weapons, expanding the U.S. stockpile, and, after January 1950 , undertaking a crash program to build a hydrogen bomb. The agency’s military emphasis proved a source of frustration and disappointment for Lilienthal, whose interests lay in the nonmilitary uses of atomic energy. But Cold War tensions and the still-rudimentary state of the technology prevented major strides in civilian applications....

Conant, James B.

Conant, James B. (1893–1978)   Reference library

Peter J. Kuznick and Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...fearing the nuclear destruction of civilization, Conant sought international control of atomic weapons, opposed development of the hydrogen bomb, and questioned the benefits of nuclear power. A typical Cold War liberal, he championed expanded defense spending and military preparedness while nevertheless opposing the militarization of academic research and trying to shield academia from McCarthyism. Although he defended civil liberties, he believed that Communist teachers should be banned from America’s schools. From 1946 to 1962 , Conant served as...

War and Medicine

War and Medicine   Reference library

Dale Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...in a war zone is only one area illustrating such changing social expectations. In American history the various relationships between war and medicine illustrate these changing expectations at both the individual and the social level. Not surprisingly, wars in which a high percentage of the practicing physicians were mobilized, for example, the Civil War and World War II, had profound impacts on American medicine; the Doctor Draft of the middle quarter of the twentieth century was perhaps a Cold War proxy of a high-mobilization war. That wars in which...

Lawrence, Ernest O.

Lawrence, Ernest O. (1901–1958)   Reference library

Robert W. Seidel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...big physics, with its large laboratories; collaborative, interdisciplinary teams of scientists and engineers; and massive particle accelerators and detectors. His abilities and enthusiasm made him one of the most influential scientists in the United States during the World War II and Cold War eras. He died shortly after returning from the 1958 Geneva Conference on nuclear arms control. [ See also Atomic Energy Commission ; Manhattan Project ; Military, Science and Technology and the ; National Laboratories ; Nobel Prize in Biomedical Research ; Nuclear...

Military, Science and Technology and The

Military, Science and Technology and The   Reference library

Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Kleinman, Daniel Lee , and Mark Solovey . “Hot Science/Cold War: The National Science Foundation after World War II.” Radical History Review 63 (1995): 110–139. Kohler, Robert E. Partners in Science: Foundations and Natural Scientists, 1900–1945 . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. Leslie, Stuart W. The Cold War and American Science: The Military–Industrial–Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford . New York: Columbia University Press, 1993. Lowen, Rebecca S. Creating the Cold War University: The Transformation of Stanford . Berkeley:...

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND   Reference library

John Krige

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Afghan Airlines, Modernization and the Cold War.” History and Technology 25, no. 1 (2009): 3–24. Wang, Zuoyue . “Transnational Science during the Cold War: The Case of Chinese/American Scientists.” Isis 101, no. 2 (2010): 367–377. Westad, Odd Arne . The Global Cold War. Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times . Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press, 2007. The first major history to define the Cold War in global terms. Westad, Odd Arne . “The New International History of the Cold War: Three (Possible) Paradigms.” Diplomatic...

Condon, Edward

Condon, Edward (1902–1974)   Reference library

Thomas C. Lassman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...federal research agencies and rigid civil service requirements, however, frustrated Condon’s plans, forcing him to rely on the military departments for institutional support. The permanent military preparedness and national security policies that accompanied the onset of the Cold War allowed Condon to access resources otherwise not available to the Bureau of Standards, but he did so at considerable professional and personal cost. Condon’s association with Wallace bolstered critics on the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), who had first publicly...

Killian, James Rhyne, Jr.

Killian, James Rhyne, Jr. (1904–1988)   Reference library

Zuoyue Wang

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...technology, and educational policy during the Cold War despite his lack of advanced training in science or technology. Born in Blacksburg, South Carolina, Killian went to MIT and received a bachelor’s degree in management in 1926 . He started his career at the MIT magazine Technology Review after graduation, becoming editor in 1930 . In 1939 he became executive assistant to the institute’s physicist president Karl Compton, worked as the liaison between the institute and the radar-making Rad Lab during World War II, and eventually succeeded Compton in ...

Office of Scientific Research and Development

Office of Scientific Research and Development   Reference library

Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...overwhelming desire to end the OSRD, researchers and government officials would often call for a new OSRD at various crisis points in the early Cold War. [ See also Bush, Vannevar ; Conant, James B. ; Engineering ; Manhattan Project ; Military, Science and Technology and the ; Penicillin ; Physics ; Research and Development (R&D) ; Science ; Sexually Transmitted Diseases ; Technology ; and War and Medicine . ] Bibliography Baxter, James Phinney . Scientists against Time . Boston: Little, Brown, 1946. The original history of the wartime agency;...

Physics

Physics   Reference library

Benjamin Wilson and David Kaiser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...than basic research per se and were managed on tight timelines to ensure usefulness during the war effort. The Cold War. Physics in the United States looked quite different after World War II than before it. Riding on the heels of the wartime projects, physics became the fastest-growing academic field in the country. Undergraduate and graduate-level enrollments in all fields, from history and literature to economics and sociology, grew exponentially after the war, aided by programs like the GI Bill; but graduate-level enrollments in physics doubled nearly...

Social Sciences

Social Sciences   Reference library

Mark C. Smith and Mark Solovey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Science Nexus in Cold War America . New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2013. Analyzes the development of a largely new extra-university funding system for the social sciences in the early Cold War period, with the military, the Ford Foundation, and the National Science Foundation as key patrons. Solovey, Mark , and Hamilton Cravens , eds. Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature . New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Examines how the social sciences’ Cold War entanglements shaped the...

International Geophysical Year

International Geophysical Year   Reference library

Angelina Callahan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...scientific data. The United States and the Soviet Union offered to set up World Data Center repositories from which researchers could collect, analyze, and publish observations. In light of this, much ado was made of the virtues of scientific cooperation and the possibility of a Cold War détente. Yet contrary to what the popular press often implied, IGY scientists represented not their national governments but their respective scientific institutions, nor did the exchange of scientific data necessitate consolidation of national scientific programs. Indeed,...

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Sciences   Reference library

Daniel Lee Kleinman and Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Research and Development, which also administered the work of the National Research Council. The National Research Council gradually combined with the National Academy of Sciences after the war. During the Cold War, the academy and the affiliated National Research Council received many contracts to provide advice to the government and thereafter continued to produce reports on a wide range of subjects. For example, from 1947 to 1973 , the academy helped direct the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Japan, which conducted research on the...

Geophysics

Geophysics   Reference library

Ronald E. Doel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...methods into the twenty-first century. Expanding Earth Sciences: World War II, the Cold War, and Beyond. Although geophysics was burgeoning in the early twentieth century, even as late as 1945 , as geophysicists H. W. Straley and M. King Hubbert noted, no North American university offered “an advanced geophysical curriculum embracing the eight geophysical branches recognized by the American Geophysical Union” ( AIME Transactions , 1945 , p. 398). Yet advances in geophysics during World War II soon changed this situation. Physical oceanographers had played a...

View: