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Overview

Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

peaceful Coexistence

peaceful Coexistence  

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Overview Page
“Peaceful coexistence” is a term invented and used during the Cold War by communist foreign-policy makers to describe the preferred nature of relationships between socialist and nonsocialist states ...
Non-Proliferation Treaty

Non-Proliferation Treaty  

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Overview Page
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (729 U.N.T.S.), opened for signature (symbolically at London, Moscow, and Washington) on 1 July 1968 and entering into force on 5 March ...
Security Council

Security Council  

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Overview Page
(of the UN) See united nations.
non-alignment

non-alignment  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The anti‐colonial and anti‐racist posture of mainly Third World countries who have sought a collective identity separate from the capitalist and socialist blocs in the northern hemisphere. The ...
disarmament

disarmament  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The process or policy of reducing levels of armaments, especially in the nuclear age, with the implication that possession of arms itself stimulates conflict. It is distinct from arms control—the ...
New Europe, Charter of Paris for

New Europe, Charter of Paris for   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
59 words

...Europe, Charter of Paris for Adopted on 21 November 1990 by the heads of State and government of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, this Charter ( 30 I.L.M. 190 (1991) ) declared principles to be applied to the new, post-Cold War Europe and created the modalities and structure of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe...

espionage

espionage   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
88 words

...‘In the early years of the operation of the Vienna Convention [on Diplomatic Relations 1961 ], suspicion of spying was the most common reason for declaring a diplomatic agent persona non grata or “requesting his recall” … The end of the Cold War diminished the number of diplomats declared persona non grata “for activities incompatible with their status”—the standard euphemism for espionage. … Requests for withdrawals of diplomats from friendly countries on grounds of espionage are extremely rare’: Denza, Diplomatic Law (3rd ed.), 77–79. See ...

Moscow Declaration

Moscow Declaration   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
159 words

...of the war. Presaging the United Natio ns , by art. 4, the Allies ‘recognize the necessity of establishing at the earliest practical date a general international organization, based of the principle of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving states, and open to membership by all such states, large and small, for the maintenance of international peace and security’. Presaging the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, the United Kingdom, United States, and U.S.S.R., in a separate Statement, conscious of ‘atrocities, massacres and cold-blooded...

détente

détente   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
128 words

...The term used to describe the process of improvement in the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ‘Literally, “détente” means a relaxation of tensions. But it is frequently used as shorthand for a complex process of adjustment. It is not a static condition or a simple standard of conduct. It does not imply “entente”, or an understanding or alliance’: (U.S.) Assistant Secretary for European Affairs Arthur A. Hartman , U.S.–Soviet Détente: Perceptions and Purposes, (1974) 120 Dept. of State Bulletin 597 . The...

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

North Atlantic Treaty Organization   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
369 words

...guidance. Ironically, NATO, being unneeded during the Cold War, for which it was created, has, after the Kosovo bombings in 1999 , become increasingly concerned to address conflicts beyond its territorial boundaries. The International Security Assistance force in Afghanistan ( ISAF ) has, since 11 August 2003 , been supported and led by NATO, and financed by the troop-contributing nations. See NATO, NATO in the 21st Century ( 2002 ); Moore, NATO's New Mission: Projecting Stability in a Post-Cold War World ( 2007 ); International Business Publications, ...

Agenda for Peace

Agenda for Peace   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
158 words

...report, titled An Agenda for Peace ( U.N. Doc. A/47/277—S/24111 ) and dated 17 June 1992 , defined and explained the concepts of preventive diplomacy , peacemaking , and peacekeeping (and also the new concept of post-conflict peacebuilding ) in the context of post-Cold War (mainly internal) conflicts. On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Uniyed Nations, Boutros-Ghali produced a Supplement to an Agenda for Peace ( U.N. Doc. A/50/60—S/1995/1 ) dated 3 January 1995 , amplifying some of the points made in 1992 in the light of States’...

Security Council

Security Council   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
758 words

...by the U.N. Security Council of its Chapter VII Powers ( 2000 ); Malone , The U.N. Security Council: From the Cold War to the 21st Century ( 2004 ); Kooijmans , Blokker , and Schrijver , The Security Council and the Use of Force ( 2005 ); Manusama , The United Nations Security Council in the Post-Cold War Era: Applying the Principle of Legality ( 2006 ); Lowe , Roberts , Welsh , and Zaum , The United Nations Security Council and War: The Evolution of Thought and Practice Since 1945 ( 2008...

veto

veto   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
357 words

...voting) of a permanent member likewise is no bar to adoption of resolutions: see Kelsen , Recent Trends in the Law of the U.N. ( 1951 ), 927–936. The use of the veto, or the threat thereof, has been a principal cause of inertia in the Security Council, particularly in the Cold War era; cf . Bailey and Daws , The Procedure of the UN Security Council (3rd ed.), 225, arguing that ‘assertions that the Security Council is impotent because of the veto cannot be substantiated’. Any alteration in the present voting arrangements in the Security Council (e.g....

Non-Aligned Movement

Non-Aligned Movement   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
343 words

...Movement This is a grouping of States which initially asserted political and military independence from both the Western and the Soviet blocs during the Cold War and now asserts independence from any alignment of States. Growing out of informal meetings beginning at Bandung, Indonesia, in 1955 , the movement was formally established at its First Summit in Belgrade in 1961 , which was attended by 25 States. The 14th Summit, held in Havana in 2006 , brought together 118 States, including virtually all States which have attained independence since ...

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