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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

East Asian Values

East Asian Values  

The end of the Cold War in Europe changed the context within which human rights were discussed across the world. Previously, the United States made the case for political and ...
South American Southern Cone

South American Southern Cone  

[See National Security State, 1970s–1980s.]National security states arose in various Latin American countries during the Cold War, beginning with the military-led government that came to power in ...
North Atlantic Treaty Organization

North Atlantic Treaty Organization   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,572 words

...play an entirely different organizational role as compared to its more limited Cold War mission. The advancement of human rights had clearly become a more salient aspect of its post–Cold War role. At the same time, it still took three-and-a-half years and some 200,000 deaths in Bosnia for NATO to overcome its internal divisions before it acted meaningfully to prevent additional human rights atrocities. Kosovo Besides the conflict in Bosnia, another major event in NATO's post–Cold War evolution took place in Kosovo, a southern province in the Federal Republic of...

Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials

Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,043 words

...but not Emperor Hirohito, who was spared the humiliation of a trial, partly in order to make the occupation easier. Some Japanese linked to atrocities were granted amnesty, just as some Germans had been, because they might be helpful to the United States in the anticipated Cold War with the Soviet Union. The prosecution began its case on 3 May 1946 , and the proceedings continued for another thirty months. There were over four hundred witnesses and close to forty-five hundred exhibits. The charges laid at Tokyo were reminiscent of the Nuremberg Trials,...

Peace and Human Rights

Peace and Human Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,444 words

...at times.) It might also be said that after the Cold War NATO member democracies did not fight among themselves because they recognized that they needed each other to help manage conflicts in places such as Afghanistan or Iran. But if one looks at democratic states before the Cold War, from roughly 1850 to 1947 , it is still true that democratic states rarely fought each other. There were many disagreements among NATO members, both during the Cold War and afterward. But those disagreements did not escalate to war. Moreover, liberal democracies tend to form...

Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,622 words

...tyranny. [ See Helsinki Accord and CSCE/OSCE and Demise of Soviet Communism .] The South gave priority to national liberation from crushing colonialism and neocolonialism. [ See Algerian War ; Belgian Congo ; Colonialism ; and Namibia: Germany's Colonial Wars against the Herero and Nama .] International Criminal Courts Rediscovered By the end of the Cold War ( 1989–1991 ), the decolonization process had been completed with the withdrawal of Portugal from Angola and Mozambique in the 1970s. In the UN Security Council in the early 1990s, the East-West...

United Nations Security Council

United Nations Security Council   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,311 words

...submit crises to such international adjudication. Cold War versus Post–Cold War Politics The Security Council during the Cold War was different from that body afterward. The framers of the world organization based it on collaboration among the major powers. President Franklin D. Roosevelt preferred the term “United Nations,” not “Allies,” and this term was transferred from a description of World War II cooperation to the title of the postwar world organization. The onset of East-West tensions as soon as the war ended, however, brought with them the demise of...

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,656 words

...and non-international conflict that has plunged the world into mourning, whether these were triggered by the Cold War or related to decolonization, such as in Indochina, Palestine-Israel, Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Algeria, Angola, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Somalia, the Middle East, the Indo-Pakistani subcontinent, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Peru. In addition, although it could not rely on any relevant provision of international law, the ICRC endeavored to protect political detainees, as it did in Greece ( 1967–1970 ), in Chile during the dictatorship...

Helsinki Accord and CSCE/OSCE

Helsinki Accord and CSCE/OSCE   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,911 words

...its modest beginnings, the OSCE became an important player in the post–Cold War security architecture as Western governments recognized the need for conflict prevention mechanisms. From its inception the CSCE provided not only states but also individuals from both sides of the iron curtain with standards by which decisions could be made and evaluations of action judged. This entry examines the history of the Helsinki Accord, the unexpected success of the CSCE process during the Cold War, and the evolution of the OSCE during the 1990s. Regarding success, it...

Javier Perez de Cuellar

Javier Perez de Cuellar   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,591 words

...de Cuellar, Pilgrimage for Peace , p. 206). These efforts did not usually make headlines, but they demonstrated his efforts to promote human rights. In this respect he was much like most of the other UN secretaries-general who held office during the Cold War. Promoting Peace and Disarmament During times of war or civil unrest, the protection of human rights is often the first casualty. Given the connection between human rights violations and conflict, it is not surprising to see human rights advocates promoting peace and disarmament as a necessary step toward...

United Nations General Assembly

United Nations General Assembly   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,754 words

...critics. The extremely vocal criticism from U.S. neoconservatives could be dismissed as Cold War–inspired complaints about the Soviet bloc's greater success at linking up with third world radicals to condemn rightist dictatorships while condoning equal or worse violations by leftist ones. However, Canadian and Western European objections were not inspired by Cold War concerns and were harder to ignore. The most egregious expressions of bias faded with the Cold War. In 2005 the subject of bias arose mainly in arguments over elections of states to the...

Angola

Angola   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,740 words

...the political handover. Mistrust among the warring parties, misgivings about the neutrality of the mediator (Portugal), and the Cold War geography of the era created an environment of uncertainty conducive to political and military manuevering rather than peaceful consolidation. Civil War(s) It was chaotic decolonization that created the opportunity for open military intervention in Angola, but foreign involvement turned war into an option, by arming and training reluctant parties for a political solution. Civil war in Angola started before formal...

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,532 words

...and earthquakes outside of Europe, not to mention refugee flows in various places. During the 1930s the RC Federation helped organize humanitarian assistance in conflict situations such as those in Ethiopia and Spain in collaboration with the ICRC. After World War II, at a time when the Cold War made cooperation within the RC network especially difficult, the RC Federation was still able to mount a number of international programs. In the Hungarian crisis of 1956 , for example, the RC Federation coordinated RC relief to Hungarian refugees mostly in...

Central America in the 1980s

Central America in the 1980s   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,097 words

...and he called upon the three states in civil war to resolve their conflicts. This plan was separate from and parallel to the proposals in Contadora. The parliament was formally created, though in the early twenty-first century it had not yet become a strong force in the region. One concrete result was a regional security treaty completed in December 1996 . These efforts contributed to the development of national peace processes in the four countries of this study. The end of the Cold War. The end of the Cold War and the changed attitude of the United States...

Tito

Tito   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,988 words

... 4 May 1980 , a few days before his eighty-eighth birthday. His funeral brought representatives from 128 states to Belgrade; they came from both sides in the Cold War and from the nonaligned states. Based on the number of politicians and state delegations in attendance, it was probably the largest diplomatic funeral to that date in history. Tito was the last survivor of the great Allied leaders of World War II. From Professional Revolutionary to Statesman Tito was born on 7 May 1892 , the seventh child in an underprivileged peasant family in the village of...

Guatemala

Guatemala   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,080 words

...Regional Context The post–World War II international and regional context, in particular the evolution of the Cold War in Latin America in the years following World War II, was of critical importance in framing and influencing events as they unfolded. In 1944 only five countries in Latin America—Mexico, Uruguay, Chile, Costa Rica, and Colombia—could claim to be democracies, principally on the basis of their procedural and institutional arrangements rather than on their levels of rights protection. The end of World War II turned the tide in the region,...

Japanese Sexual Slavery

Japanese Sexual Slavery   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,025 words

...reveal their pasts would be social suicide. Second, the Allied nations failed to pressure Japan to settle the issue because they desired to normalize relations with Japan because of the Cold War. But why, then, did the women start to speak up at the beginning of the 1990s? In 1989 Japan's wartime emperor, Hirohito, died, and his death coincided with the end of the Cold War. These changes created room for liberalization in its many forms. Additionally and most importantly, emancipation empowered women and created a strong feminist movement in the nations that...

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,054 words

...In the wake of World War II and in reaction to the dreadful abuses that had occurred within some national societies, the movement sought to define the fundamental principles to which it had always claimed to adhere. On the basis of the works of Max Huber and Jean Pictet , a joint ICRC-league commission drew up a charter containing seven articles, which was submitted to the Council of Delegates meeting in Prague in 1961 , then to the Twentieth International Conference of the Red Cross, which met in Vienna in 1965 . In spite of Cold War tensions, this...

Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda

Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,228 words

...jihad against the Soviet Union. The mujahideen guerrillas promoted the production of heroin in their campaign against the Soviets. This so-called narco-jihadism received a wink and a nod from the CIA, which had, for all practical intents and purposes, given up the drug war to fight its Cold War enemy. Saudi Arabia provided funding for the Afghan resistance movement. From the Pakistani border, bin Laden also raised funds and provided the mujahideen with logistical and humanitarian aid. At the same time, bin Laden participated in several battles as a guerrilla...

Ethnic Cleansing

Ethnic Cleansing   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,884 words

...War; the retaliatory expulsion of Jews from Arab states between 1948 and 1950 ; the mass expulsion of Asians from Uganda in 1972 ; the forced movement of populations between northern and southern Cyprus during the Cypriot Crisis of 1974–1975 (when Turkey invaded the island); and the forced exodus of Muslims from Bulgaria in the 1980s, to name only a few. The end of the Cold War and the resurgence of nationalism that followed unleashed yet another wave of forced population movements. In addition to Croatia and Bosnia, other post–Cold War examples...

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