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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Atomic Energy Commission

Atomic Energy Commission   Reference library

J. Samuel Walker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
430 words

... ( 1899 – 1981 ), a former director of the Tennessee Valley Authority, became its first chairman. As the Cold War progressed, the agency focused its resources on weapons, expanding the U.S. stockpile, and, after January 1950 , undertaking a crash program to build a hydrogen bomb. The agency’s military emphasis proved a source of frustration and disappointment for Lilienthal, whose interests lay in the nonmilitary uses of atomic energy. But Cold War tensions and the still-rudimentary state of the technology prevented major strides in civilian...

Censorship

Censorship   Reference library

Francis G. Couvares and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,323 words

...Like the Federalist Party in the 1790 s, subsequent leaders during the Civil War, the two world wars, and the Cold War would insist that the nation’s fate depended on the government’s capacity to censor its critics. Confronted with antiwar and pro-South agitation during the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus in 1863 and authorized the arrest of southern sympathizers, war opponents, and persons engaged in “any disloyal practice.” In World War I, under the 1917 Espionage Act and the 1918 Sedition Amendment, the ...

Civil Liberties

Civil Liberties   Reference library

Patrick M. Garry and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,079 words

...citizens of one ancestry in a different category from others.” In Korematsu v. United States ( 1944 ), the Court upheld the evacuation of Japanese Americans, but added, in Endo v . United States ( 1944 ), that the War Relocation Authority should attempt to separate “loyal” internees from “disloyal” ones and release the former. Cold-War Era Retrenchment.  The early postwar era saw considerable retrenchment in the area of civil liberties. The conservative mood in the country brought a shift in political priorities from a concern for individual freedom to a...

Administrative State

Administrative State   Reference library

Williamjames Hull Hoffer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,652 words

...tax through the Internal Revenue Service. Although these programs failed to end the Great Depression, they vastly increased the scale and scope of the national administrative state. After World War II ended in 1945 , Republican majorities in Congress dismantled the Depression relief agencies, but the expansion of government bureaucracy continued. The Cold War provided the impetus to expand the national security apparatus of the United States, featuring a united Department of Defense, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the National Security Agency. The...

Budget, Federal

Budget, Federal   Reference library

Iwan Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,715 words

...validated Keynesianism in restoring full employment and strong economic growth. World War II’s fiscal legacy shaped postwar budgeting. The personal income tax’s transformation into a mass tax in 1943 provided ample revenue for outlay expansion. In FY 1960 expenditure and receipts each constituted 17.8 percent GDP compared with 9.8 percent and 6.8 percent, respectively, in FY 1940 . Spending composition now prioritized defense over domestic programs. With the Cold War necessitating a huge military establishment, national security averaged 56 percent of...

Anti-Communism

Anti-Communism   Reference library

Richard Gid Powers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
722 words

...experience they brought to the movement. United only in their hatred of Communism, these individuals often warred as fiercely among themselves as against the common enemy. American anti-Communism exerted its greatest influence during the late 1940 s and early 1950 s, when it provided the moral and intellectual basis for the containment policies that underlay the Western alliance against the Soviet Union and other Communist regimes. During those Cold War years, anti-Communists created a widespread grassroots movement that mobilized millions of Americans in...

Assisted Suicide Policy

Assisted Suicide Policy   Reference library

Ian Dowbiggin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
986 words

...of assisted suicide. To euthanasia supporters it was more important to empower physicians treating the chronically ill and dying than patients who might wish to put themselves out of their own pain and misery. A series of significant events and trends during the Cold War transformed assisted suicide into a contentious policy issue. More and more Americans were becoming aware that they stood to live longer than their ancestors because of improvements in public health and the introduction of life-sustaining medical technologies. Longer life...

Brown v. Board of Education

Brown v. Board of Education   Reference library

Anders Walker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,038 words

...data to prove that the psychological development of African American youth was harmed by Jim Crow , engendering a sense of racial inferiority. Others joined, including President Truman ’s Justice Department, which declared the invalidation of segregation necessary to win the Cold War. This point emphasized the ugly contrast between America’s self-proclaimed ideals of democracy and the South’s repressive regime of disfranchisement and repression. Sympathetic to such claims, along with the NAACP’s social science evidence, Chief Justice Earl Warren worked...

Asian Americans

Asian Americans   Reference library

Don Toshiaki Nakanishi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,098 words

...They also have been affected to a greater extent than other American immigrant groups by the dramatic shifts in bilateral relations between the United States and their homelands like the World War II internment of 120,000 Japanese Americans or the thwarting of leftist activities among Chinese and other Asian Pacific Americans during the McCarthy era and other “Cold War” periods in American history. Asian Pacific Americans, like other American racial groups, have engaged in an array of nonelectoral political activities to advance or protect their group...

Conscription

Conscription   Reference library

Christopher Clark

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
479 words

...of war in December 1941 . More than 10 million males were drafted between 1940 and 1947 . Once again, the only exemptions were for family hardship, disability, or conscientious objection to war. Because of the manpower needs of U.S. occupation forces in Germany and Japan and the beginnings of the Cold War, conscription continued after the war’s end. It was further extended by the Universal Military Training and Service Act of June 1951 , a congressional response to the Korean War, which was periodically extended thereafter. The Vietnam War...

Rosenberg Case

Rosenberg Case   Reference library

Richard Gid Powers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
559 words

...in the United States . The cables quickly led to David Greenglass , Ethel ’s brother, who had worked as a machinist at Los Alamos during the war. Greenglass soon implicated Julius Rosenberg —code-named “Liberal” in the Venona Cables—as the leader of an atomic spy ring. Arrested in 1950 , against a Cold War backdrop that included the second Alger Hiss trial, the fall of China to Communism, the Korean War, and the 1949 confession of the German-born British scientist Klaus Fuchs that he had spied for the Russians while assigned to Los Alamos , the...

McCarthy, Joseph

McCarthy, Joseph   Reference library

David M. Oshinsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
910 words

...McCarthy for bringing that body into “into dishonor and disrepute.” Many linked his censure to an easing of Cold War tensions. The Korean War was over, the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin was dead, and the radical right was in disarray. His demagoguery no longer effective, McCarthy grew increasingly depressed. He died of alcoholism in 1957 , utterly discredited, but the word “McCarthyism” lived on, a re-minder of the worst times of the early Cold War. [ See also Anti-Communism ; Army– McCarthy Hearings ; Communist Party USA ; Eisenhower, Dwight D. ; ...

Conscientious Objection

Conscientious Objection   Reference library

John Whiteclay Chambers II

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
620 words

...in Civilian Public Service (CPS), and 5,000 absolutists were imprisoned. Of the 35,000 COs who performed alternative service between 1951 and 1965 , the Cold War’s peak, most worked in hospitals or mental institutions, with the CPS camps having been abolished. During the Korean War, nearly 1.5 percent of inductees were exempted as COs compared with 0.15 percent in each world war. In the Vietnam War, large numbers of young men, both secular and religious, applied for CO status or simply refused to cooperate with the Selective Service System. These new COs...

Trading with the Enemy Act

Trading with the Enemy Act   Reference library

Thomas W. Zeiler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
327 words

...A 1933 amendment under the Emergency Banking Act expanded the president’s power to impose controls during national domestic crises such as the Great Depression. This led to an open-ended status during subsequent international contests including World War II, the Cold War, and the Persian Gulf War, when the law provided the legal justification for consumer controls, export restrictions, and economic sanctions against designated enemies. The National Emergencies Act of 1977 , a post–Watergate effort to curb executive power, terminated all additions to...

Edgar, Hoover, J.

Edgar, Hoover, J.   Reference library

Athan Theoharis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
537 words

... 1930 s and then about spies during World War II and the Cold War. Indeed, Cold War anti-Communism became the catalyst of Hoover ’s unquestioned power and influence on national politics. Hoover also astutely cultivated presidents, members of Congress, and the media and promoted a public-relations campaign that successfully identified criticism of himself or the FBI with disloyalty. With Hoover ’s collaboration, the entertainment industry burnished the FBI’s image, as in the radio program The FBI in Peace and War . The story of Herbert Philbrick , who...

Lippmann, Walter

Lippmann, Walter   Reference library

Barry D Riccio

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
410 words

...governmental activism, to defend a market-oriented liberalism that some critics mistook for warmed-over laissez-faire ideology. With the rise of totalitarianism abroad, Lippmann abandoned his youthful pragmatism and its attendant relativism. During and after World War II he criticized U.S. Cold War ideology for oversimplifying complex international realities, becoming an articulate exponent of a tough-minded foreign policy “realism.” Because he wrote so much, for so long, about so many issues, Lippmann occasionally seemed a man for every season. But a...

Neoconservatism

Neoconservatism   Reference library

John Ehrman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,200 words

...had ad-hered to various schools of Marxism and socialism. At the start of the Cold War, however, many in this group—including Irving Kristol , Daniel Bell , and Nathan Glazer —abandoned socialism for a liberal stance that accepted capitalism and rejected communism, supported continued social reforms at home, and embraced containment abroad. Known as Cold War liberals, they were firmly anchored in the Democratic Party. Starting in the mid- 1960 s, several factors led some Cold War liberals to move away from the liberal mainstream. Concerned that the...

Internal Security Act

Internal Security Act   Reference library

William R. Tanner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
321 words

...Security Act Also known as the McCarran Act. Enacted during the early Cold War, shortly after the Soviet Union’s detonation of an atomic bomb and North Korea ’s invasion of South Korea , the Internal Security Act of 1950 expressed the nation’s growing fear of Communism, both at home and abroad, in the so-called McCarthy Era. Its main intention was to control the spread of domestic subversion. Title I—“The Subversive Activity Control Act”—required “Communist-action” organizations and “Communist front” organizations to register with the Justice...

Stevenson, Adlai

Stevenson, Adlai   Reference library

William L. O’Neill

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
274 words

..., President Kennedy appointed Stevenson ambassador to the United Nations. In that role, he argued strongly against invading Cuba during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis , thereby helping Kennedy guide the United States safely through the most dangerous weeks of the Cold War. Stevenson remained at the United Nations until his sudden death in July 1965 . [ See also Eisenhower, Dwight D. ; Federal Government, Executive Branch: State Department ; Kennedy, John F. ; McCarthy, Joseph ; and Roosevelt, Franklin Delano . ] Bibliography Martin,...

Radicalism

Radicalism   Reference library

Paul Buhle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
979 words

...movement. In part, they achieved impressive success—at least until the Cold War—in building egalitarian industrial unions and a radical interracial culture. The Cold War and its concomitant do-mestic repression chilled radicalism severely. Civil rights radicals, however, never quite as crushed as labor radicals had been, revived the direct-action approach, from the Montgomery bus boycott to the lunch-counter sit-ins to the Black Power movement of the 1960 s. The anti– Vietnam War movement; environmentalism; feminism; activism by Indian, Chicano, and...

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