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Overview

Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
2,158 words

...Europe and the Mediterranean, the extension of Soviet hegemony in eastern Europe, an arms race, and fluctuating fears of a world war involving atomic weapons. Tensions abated with détente in the 1970s, but increased in the ‘Star Wars’ anti-missile weapons phase in the 1980s. Ending with the Soviet bloc's collapse in 1989 , the Cold War influenced the development of Australian law and the work of the High Court. Australia's Cold War involvement underwent a change with the Chifley Labor government's defeat in 1949 . This reflected the rivalry between, and the...

Communism and Cold War

Communism and Cold War   Reference library

Michal R. Belknap

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
743 words

...and Cold War Communism became a central concern of the Supreme Court during the most frigid phase of the international confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. The cold war arose out of American unwillingness to accept Russian domination of Central and Eastern Europe after World War II . By 1947 the United States had committed itself to the containment of the Soviet Union. Because American policy makers equated communism with Soviet imperialism, implementation of this strategy involved not only the erection of a military fence...

Atomic Energy Commission

Atomic Energy Commission   Reference library

J. Samuel Walker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
430 words

... ( 1899 – 1981 ), a former director of the Tennessee Valley Authority, became its first chairman. As the Cold War progressed, the agency focused its resources on weapons, expanding the U.S. stockpile, and, after January 1950 , undertaking a crash program to build a hydrogen bomb. The agency’s military emphasis proved a source of frustration and disappointment for Lilienthal, whose interests lay in the nonmilitary uses of atomic energy. But Cold War tensions and the still-rudimentary state of the technology prevented major strides in civilian...

Censorship

Censorship   Reference library

Francis G. Couvares and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,323 words

...Like the Federalist Party in the 1790 s, subsequent leaders during the Civil War, the two world wars, and the Cold War would insist that the nation’s fate depended on the government’s capacity to censor its critics. Confronted with antiwar and pro-South agitation during the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus in 1863 and authorized the arrest of southern sympathizers, war opponents, and persons engaged in “any disloyal practice.” In World War I, under the 1917 Espionage Act and the 1918 Sedition Amendment, the ...

Civil Liberties

Civil Liberties   Reference library

Patrick M. Garry and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,079 words

...citizens of one ancestry in a different category from others.” In Korematsu v. United States ( 1944 ), the Court upheld the evacuation of Japanese Americans, but added, in Endo v . United States ( 1944 ), that the War Relocation Authority should attempt to separate “loyal” internees from “disloyal” ones and release the former. Cold-War Era Retrenchment.  The early postwar era saw considerable retrenchment in the area of civil liberties. The conservative mood in the country brought a shift in political priorities from a concern for individual freedom to a...

Administrative State

Administrative State   Reference library

Williamjames Hull Hoffer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,652 words

...tax through the Internal Revenue Service. Although these programs failed to end the Great Depression, they vastly increased the scale and scope of the national administrative state. After World War II ended in 1945 , Republican majorities in Congress dismantled the Depression relief agencies, but the expansion of government bureaucracy continued. The Cold War provided the impetus to expand the national security apparatus of the United States, featuring a united Department of Defense, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the National Security Agency. The...

Budget, Federal

Budget, Federal   Reference library

Iwan Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,715 words

...validated Keynesianism in restoring full employment and strong economic growth. World War II’s fiscal legacy shaped postwar budgeting. The personal income tax’s transformation into a mass tax in 1943 provided ample revenue for outlay expansion. In FY 1960 expenditure and receipts each constituted 17.8 percent GDP compared with 9.8 percent and 6.8 percent, respectively, in FY 1940 . Spending composition now prioritized defense over domestic programs. With the Cold War necessitating a huge military establishment, national security averaged 56 percent of...

Anti-Communism

Anti-Communism   Reference library

Richard Gid Powers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
722 words

...experience they brought to the movement. United only in their hatred of Communism, these individuals often warred as fiercely among themselves as against the common enemy. American anti-Communism exerted its greatest influence during the late 1940 s and early 1950 s, when it provided the moral and intellectual basis for the containment policies that underlay the Western alliance against the Soviet Union and other Communist regimes. During those Cold War years, anti-Communists created a widespread grassroots movement that mobilized millions of Americans in...

Assisted Suicide Policy

Assisted Suicide Policy   Reference library

Ian Dowbiggin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
986 words

...of assisted suicide. To euthanasia supporters it was more important to empower physicians treating the chronically ill and dying than patients who might wish to put themselves out of their own pain and misery. A series of significant events and trends during the Cold War transformed assisted suicide into a contentious policy issue. More and more Americans were becoming aware that they stood to live longer than their ancestors because of improvements in public health and the introduction of life-sustaining medical technologies. Longer life...

Brown v. Board of Education

Brown v. Board of Education   Reference library

Anders Walker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,038 words

...data to prove that the psychological development of African American youth was harmed by Jim Crow , engendering a sense of racial inferiority. Others joined, including President Truman ’s Justice Department, which declared the invalidation of segregation necessary to win the Cold War. This point emphasized the ugly contrast between America’s self-proclaimed ideals of democracy and the South’s repressive regime of disfranchisement and repression. Sympathetic to such claims, along with the NAACP’s social science evidence, Chief Justice Earl Warren worked...

Asian Americans

Asian Americans   Reference library

Don Toshiaki Nakanishi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,098 words

...They also have been affected to a greater extent than other American immigrant groups by the dramatic shifts in bilateral relations between the United States and their homelands like the World War II internment of 120,000 Japanese Americans or the thwarting of leftist activities among Chinese and other Asian Pacific Americans during the McCarthy era and other “Cold War” periods in American history. Asian Pacific Americans, like other American racial groups, have engaged in an array of nonelectoral political activities to advance or protect their group...

Music, Politics of

Music, Politics of   Reference library

Deborah Pacini Hernandez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,206 words

...it, was expected by non-Latino music industry personnel and fans alike to be in English only. Puerto Ricans who ventured into the hip-hop arena as it coalesced as a style often altered their names to hide their ethnicity; DJ Charlie Chase, for example, a founding member of the Cold Crush Brothers, was born Carlos Mandes. In the 1990s, when hip-hop came to be identified as a diasporan music rather than as solely an African American cultural production, Puerto Rican rappers began self-identifying ethnically. Urban Latinos elsewhere in the United States...

Antarctic Treaty

Antarctic Treaty   Reference library

Australian Law Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
372 words

...late 1940s and 1950s, together with increasing international interest in Antarctica, especially by the USA and the Soviet Union. The treaty has the modest objectives of ensuring that activities in Antarctica are exclusively peaceful (a feature of special importance during the Cold War), and facilitating scientific cooperation on the continent (a feature of special importance today with respect to the global climate). Disputed claims to sovereignty are addressed by two provisions in Art IV. The first is intended to assure claimant parties that nothing in the...

Military Tribunals

Military Tribunals   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
4,113 words
Illustration(s):
1

...War Trials: A Study in Military Injustice. ” Stanford Law Review 43 (1990): 13–98. Analyzes an overlooked episode in Civil War–era military justice. Glazier, David W. “ Kangaroo Court or Competent Tribunal? Judging the 21st Century Military Commission. ” Virginia Law Review 89 (2003): 2005–2093. A thorough historical review of military tribunals that argues that the procedural standards and judicial review governing courts-martial also apply to military commissions. Hillman, Elizabeth Lutes . Defending America: Military Culture and the Cold War...

Immigration

Immigration   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
3,406 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and southern Europe; prior exclusions for Asia remained in effect. The policy survived the discrediting of eugenics in the 1940s and was recodified in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 . It became untenable in the face of the civil rights movement of the 1960s and cold war competition for influence in the Third World and was replaced by a more formally equal allocation of visas in 1965 . Other important exclusion policies included labor protection and ideological exclusion. From 1885 to 1952 , the contract-labor exclusion prohibited (with...

International Law

International Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
17,718 words
Illustration(s):
4

...led to a backlash. In one view, international protections of civil and political rights were superfluous given the Constitution's own rights provisions and judicial review. Conversely, social and economic guarantees came to be seen as Socialist imports, especially as the Cold War heated up. More alarming, especially in the American South, was the priority international instruments accorded racial equality. Were such principles to be invoked as federal law, either through treaty or international custom, Jim Crow segregation in the states would suddenly...

Political Crimes

Political Crimes   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
4,442 words
Illustration(s):
1

...is still debate about whether they were guilty, it does seem clear that the trial was biased and unfair, and Judge Webster Thayer indisputably sided with the prosecutors, calling Sacco and Vanzetti “anarchist bastards.” After World War II, when relations between the United States and the Soviet Union devolved into the cold war, the fear that Communists were secretly operating in the United States led to numerous prosecutions. One of the most discussed involved Alger Hiss, whom the onetime Communist agent Whittaker Chambers claimed had provided classified...

Taxation

Taxation   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
20,850 words
Illustration(s):
3

...had become embedded in American political and legal culture by the end of the war. The Rise and Fall of the Post–World War II Era of Easy Finance. From the end of the war to roughly the 1970s, an unprecedented economic boom and high tax rates led to an era of “easy finance.” Economic growth and declining defense spending afforded lawmakers with an opportunity to increase discretionary spending on domestic programs without enacting significant tax hikes. The ensuing Cold War and the conflicts in Korea and Vietnam, of course, required major expenditures, but...

Labor and Employment Law

Labor and Employment Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
10,957 words
Illustration(s):
1

...helped rubber workers by refusing to install tires made by struck tire companies). It provided that secondary-boycott enforcement should “be given priority over all other cases,” and required the board to seek court injunctions in every such case. Reflecting the onset of the Cold War, the act required all union officials to submit anticommunist affidavits or forfeit their unions’ access to the NLRB. Section 301 of the Taft-Hartley Act, which granted federal court jurisdiction over suits to enforce collective- bargaining agreements, gave rise to an explosion...

Constitution of the United States

Constitution of the United States   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
16,028 words
Illustration(s):
4

...dealing with issues of war and peace. Two world wars, followed by a cold war that lasted nearly five decades, put the president at the focus of issues of declaring war, making peace, and defending the nation, while leaving the other two coordinate branches relatively little power to restrain him. New technologies giving the president increasing power to speak for the nation and to set the national political agenda extended powers and authority already ceded to the president in times of domestic crisis during the 1930s and in times of war during the 1940s. By...

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