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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Turkey

Turkey   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,859 words
Illustration(s):
2

...followed by Russia, the UK, Georgia, and Bulgaria. Contemporary politics Turkey has always had an ambivalent relationship with Europe. On the one hand, Turkey is strategically important, and has been a key member of NATO, for which it was a missile launching pad during the cold war. On the other hand, it has a poor record on human rights, particularly with respect to the Kurds. Added to this has been the dispute with Greece over Cyprus. These difficulties had made the EU nervous of inviting Turkey as a candidate for membership. Turkey’s recent political history...

Bolivia

Bolivia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,280 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the mineral wealth of the country. In addition to legally traded goods, Bolivia’s largest unofficial export is coca paste. This is derived from coca leaves grown by 35,000 or so peasant farmers in the lowlands. Bolivians have traditionally chewed coca leaf to numb themselves to cold and hunger, and 60 per cent of the coca crop is sold legally to meet this demand. However, the remainder of the coca harvest is converted in coca paste, and illegal exports, mainly to Brazil and Argentina, still amounted to around 1 per cent of GNP in 2014 , although...

Russia

Russia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,234 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Putin ordered Russian airplanes to bomb forces of the so-called Islamic State and other opponents of Assad in Syria and Russia provided military support on the ground for Assad, who then regained the initiative in the civil war. Russia then became a key player in international negotiations to find a resolution of the civil war. While the negotiations were ultimately fruitless, Russian military support ensured that by 2018 Syrian forces controlled most of the country, that the so-called Islamic State was driven out, and that Assad remained secure as...

Cuba

Cuba: 1492 - 2009  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...War Cold war Wars since 1900 Latin America Caribbean Mexico 1958 1958 Dictator Fulgencio Batista flees from Cuba, leaving Havana open to Fidel Castro and his victorious guerrillas Batista y Zaldívar, Fulgencio (1901–1973) Who's Who in the Twentieth Century 1 1950s 20th century Politics Communism War Cold war Wars since 1900 Latin America Caribbean 1959 1959 Fidel Castro begins more than four decades of authoritarian rule in Cuba Castro Ruz, Fidel (b. 13 Aug. 1927) A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 1950s 20th century Politics Communism War Cold war...

Vietnam

Vietnam: 207 BCE - 2003  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...1 1940s Second World War 20th century Politics Communism Conquest and colonization War European empires from 1415 French empire Cold war Asia East Asia Southeast Asia Europe Empires Wars since 1900 1946 1946 The Indochina War breaks out in Vietnam between the French colonial forces and the Vietminh Indochina War (1946–54) A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 1940s 20th century Politics Conquest and colonization War European empires from 1415 French empire Cold war Asia East Asia Southeast Asia Europe Empires Wars since 1900 1954 1954 Hungarian...

Hungary

Hungary: c. 895 - 1978  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...War Europe Russia Wars since 1900 1944 1944 December 21 - with Budapest still in German hands, the Soviets set up a provisional Hungarian government, at Debrecen Rakosi, Matyas (1892–1971) A Dictionary of World History 2 1940s Second World War 20th century Politics Communism War Cold war Europe Wars since 1900 1944 1944 December 26 - the Soviet army surrounds the Hungarian capital, Budapest Budapest, siege of The Oxford Companion to World War II 1 1940s Second World War 20th century Communism War Cold war Europe Wars since 1900 1945 1945 January 17 - after...

Czech Republic

Czech Republic: c. 35,000 years ago - 1993  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Social and domestic War Bohemia Cold war Society Wars since 1900 1968 1968 Soviet and Warsaw Pact troops invade Czechoslovakia to end the Prague Spring Prague Spring A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 1960s 20th century Politics Communism Persecution and repression War Bohemia Cold war Wars since 1900 1968 1968 Reformist Czech leader Alexander Dubcek is arrested and flown to Moscow Dubček, Alexander (27 Nov. 1921) A Dictionary of Political Biography 1 rev 1960s 20th century Politics Communism War Bohemia Cold war Wars since 1900 1969 1969 Moscow...

Bohemia

Bohemia: c. 35,000 years ago - 1993  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...and domestic War Cold war Czech Republic Society Wars since 1900 1968 1968 Soviet and Warsaw Pact troops invade Czechoslovakia to end the Prague Spring Prague Spring A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 1960s 20th century Politics Communism Persecution and repression War Cold war Czech Republic Wars since 1900 1968 1968 Reformist Czech leader Alexander Dubcek is arrested and flown to Moscow Dubček, Alexander (27 Nov. 1921) A Dictionary of Political Biography 1 rev 1960s 20th century Politics Communism War Cold war Czech Republic Wars since 1900 1969...

Poland

Poland: c. 1500 BCE - 1990  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Politics Communism War Cold war Europe Wars since 1900 1980 1980 A trade union, Solidarnośc (Solidarity), is formed by strikers in the Gdansk shipyard in Poland Solidarity A Dictionary of World History 2 1980s 20th century Politics Communism War Cold war Europe Wars since 1900 1980 1980 Lech Walesa is elected chairman of the newly formed Polish trade union movement Solidarnośc (Solidarity) Wałesa, Lech (1943– ) Who's Who in the Twentieth Century 1 1980s 20th century Politics Communism Democracy and dissent War Cold war Europe Wars since 1900 1981 1981 The...

Korea

Korea: 57 BCE - 2010  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...U.S. Military 1 1940s Second World War 20th century War Cold war Asia East Asia Wars since 1900 1948 1948 Kim Il Sung becomes prime minister of North Korea on the withdrawal of the Soviet occupying force Kim Il Sung (1912–1994) Who's Who in the Twentieth Century 1 1940s 20th century Politics Communism War Cold war Asia East Asia Wars since 1900 1950 1950 North Korean troops cross the 38th parallel to invade the southern half of the region Korean War (1950–3) A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 1950s 20th century War Asia East Asia 1950 1950 North...

Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia: c. 60,000 years ago - 2010  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...of Contemporary World History 3 1940s Second World War 20th century Politics Communism Conquest and colonization War Cold war Asia East Asia Vietnam Wars since 1900 1945 1945 September 2 - Ho Chi Minh proclaims the democratic republic of Vietnam, independent of the colonial power, France Ho Chi Minh (1890–1969) World Encyclopedia 1 1940s Second World War 20th century Politics Communism Conquest and colonization War European empires from 1415 French empire Cold war Asia East Asia Vietnam Europe Empires Wars since 1900 1946 1946 Aung San's party, the...

Chile

Chile: 1810 - 2010  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Politics Communism War Cold war China Wars since 1900 Latin America South America 1971 1971 The Chilean poet Pablo Neruda wins the Nobel Prize for Literature Neruda, Pablo (1904–1973) Who's Who in the Twentieth Century 1 1970s 20th century China Latin America South America 1973 1973 President Salvador Allende appoints Augusto Pinochet commander-in-chief of the Chilean army and brings him into the cabinet Pinochet Ugarte, Augusto (b. 25 Nov. 1915) A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 1970s 20th century Politics War Cold war China Wars since 1900 Latin...

Germany

Germany: c. 35,000 years ago - 2005  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...World War 20th century Politics War Cold war Wars since 1900 1949 1949 May 25 - the Federal Republic of Germany is formed from the British, French and US zones of occupation Germany A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 1940s Second World War 20th century Politics War Cold war Wars since 1900 1949 1949 May 30 - the USSR grants nominal independence to east Germany as the newly established German Democratic Republic Germany A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 1940s Second World War 20th century Politics Communism War Cold war Wars since 1900...

Pacific Islands

Pacific Islands: c. 1300 BCE - 1951  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...and Oceania Rulers and politicians Wars since 1900 1946 1946 The first of about 20 US tests of atomic and hydrogen bombs is carried out on Bikini Atoll, in the Pacific Bikini atoll The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military 1 1940s 20th century Science Physics Weapons Australia and Oceania 1951 1951 The first hydrogen bomb is successfully tested by the US at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands hydrogen bomb World Encyclopedia 1 1950s 20th century Science Physics War Weapons Cold war Australia and Oceania Wars since 1900 North America United...

Caribbean

Caribbean: c. 1000 - 2010  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...and his victorious guerrillas Batista y Zaldívar, Fulgencio (1901–1973) Who's Who in the Twentieth Century 1 1950s 20th century Politics Communism War Cold war Wars since 1900 Latin America Cuba 1959 1959 Fidel Castro begins more than four decades of authoritarian rule in Cuba Castro Ruz, Fidel (b. 13 Aug. 1927) A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 1950s 20th century Politics Communism War Cold war Wars since 1900 Latin America Cuba 1959 1959 West Indian poet and playwright Derek Walcott founds the Trinidad Theatre Workshop Walcott, Derek (1930– ) The...

East Asia

East Asia: c. 500,000 years ago - 2011  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Conquest and colonization War European empires from 1415 French empire Cold war Asia Southeast Asia Vietnam Europe Empires Wars since 1900 1946 1946 January 1: the Japanese emperor Hirohito renounces his traditional divine status and declares that he is mortal Hirohito The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World 2 1940s Second World War 20th century Politics Dynasties and royalty War Asia Japan Wars since 1900 1946 1946 March 27: twenty-five Japanese defendants are put on trial in Tokyo, charged with war crimes Tokyo War Crimes Trial Oxford...

Russia

Russia: c. 23,000 years ago - 2008  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...discuss Allied post-war plans Yalta Conference (February 1945) World Encyclopedia 1 1940s Second World War 20th century Communism War British prime ministers - from 1830 US presidents Cold war Europe Rulers and politicians Wars since 1900 1945 1945 February 11 - Stalin agrees at Yalta to declare war on Japan after the end of the European war Yalta Conference A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 1940s Second World War 20th century War Europe Wars since 1900 1945 1945 February 11 - Stalin, at Yalta, promises free elections in post-war eastern Europe Yalta...

Latin America

Latin America: c. 5000 BCE - 2010  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...and his victorious guerrillas Batista y Zaldívar, Fulgencio (1901–1973) Who's Who in the Twentieth Century 1 1950s 20th century Politics Communism War Cold war Wars since 1900 Caribbean Cuba 1959 1959 Fidel Castro begins more than four decades of authoritarian rule in Cuba Castro Ruz, Fidel (b. 13 Aug. 1927) A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 1950s 20th century Politics Communism War Cold war Wars since 1900 Caribbean Cuba 1959 1959 West Indian poet and playwright Derek Walcott founds the Trinidad Theatre Workshop Walcott, Derek (1930– ) The...

South America

South America: 15,000 to 10,000 years ago - 2010  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...and rebellion War Cold war Wars since 1900 Latin America 1967 1967 Colombian novelist Gabriel García Márquez publishes a classic of magic realism, One Hundred Years of Solitude García Márquez, Gabriel (1928– ) Who's Who in the Twentieth Century 1 1960s 20th century Literature American literature Fiction Latin America 1967 1967 Cuban revolutionary Che Guevara is captured and executed in Bolivia Guevara (de la Serna), Che (1928–1967) Who's Who in the Twentieth Century 1 1960s 20th century Politics Communism Protest and rebellion War Cold war Wars since 1900...

Central Asia

Central Asia: c. 3800 BCE - 2010  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Physics War Weapons Cold war Asia Wars since 1900 1951 1951 The new Iranian prime minister, Mohammed Mossadegh, passes the Oil Nationalization Act, seizing Britain's assets in the region Iran The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World 1 1950s 20th century Politics Commerce and industry Asia Iran (Persia) Society 1953 1953 The first Soviet hydrogen bomb is successfully tested at the Semipalatinsk Test Site in Kazakhstan nuclear bomb The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science 1 1950s 20th century Communism Science Physics War Weapons Cold war Asia...

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