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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Cold War

Cold War   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
94 words

... War Political, ideological and economic confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from the end of World War 2 until the late 1980s. Despite incidents such as the Berlin Airlift ( 1948–49 ) and the Cuban missile crisis ( 1962 ), open warfare never occurred between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO ) and the Warsaw Pact - although indirect confrontation occurred in the Korean War and the Vietnam War . the Cold War ended with the collapse of communism in the late 1980s and the dissolution of the...

Turkey

Turkey   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,859 words
Illustration(s):
2

...followed by Russia, the UK, Georgia, and Bulgaria. Contemporary politics Turkey has always had an ambivalent relationship with Europe. On the one hand, Turkey is strategically important, and has been a key member of NATO, for which it was a missile launching pad during the cold war. On the other hand, it has a poor record on human rights, particularly with respect to the Kurds. Added to this has been the dispute with Greece over Cyprus. These difficulties had made the EU nervous of inviting Turkey as a candidate for membership. Turkey’s recent political history...

Bolivia

Bolivia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,280 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the mineral wealth of the country. In addition to legally traded goods, Bolivia’s largest unofficial export is coca paste. This is derived from coca leaves grown by 35,000 or so peasant farmers in the lowlands. Bolivians have traditionally chewed coca leaf to numb themselves to cold and hunger, and 60 per cent of the coca crop is sold legally to meet this demand. However, the remainder of the coca harvest is converted in coca paste, and illegal exports, mainly to Brazil and Argentina, still amounted to around 1 per cent of GNP in 2014 , although...

Russia

Russia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,234 words
Illustration(s):
2

...featureless and often marshy landscape that stretches east to the Yenisei River. This leads on to the Central Siberian Plateau and then to Russia’s Far East, which ends in a number of mountain ranges before reaching the Pacific coast. Russia’s climate is often harsh, with bitterly cold winters and short summers, especially in the north and east. The people The majority of people, around four-fifths, are ethnic Russians, but the country also has over 200 other national or ethnic groups, of which the largest are Tatars, Ukrainians, and Chuvash. The ethnic spectrum...

Iron Curtain

Iron Curtain   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
39 words

...Curtain Term describing the barrier between communist East Europe and the capitalist West during the Cold War . The term passed into common use after its appearance in a speech by Winston Churchill at Fulton, Missouri, in March 1946...

Lie, Trygve Halvdan

Lie, Trygve Halvdan (1896–1968)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
46 words

...Trygve Halvdan ( 1896–1968 ) Norwegian statesman , first secretary-general of the United Nations ( 1946–52 ). Lie blamed both sides for the Cold War , but antagonized the Soviet Union by his support for UN intervention in the Korean War ( 1950 ). He was replaced by Dag Hammarskjöld...

Blunt, Anthony

Blunt, Anthony (1907–83)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
63 words

...Institute of Art, London, and surveyor of the King's (later Queen's) pictures ( 1945–72 ). Blunt was a formidable scholar, earning praise for his work on Nicolas Poussin . In 1979 , his reputation was destroyed when it was disclosed that he had been a Soviet spy during the Cold War...

Molotov, Vyacheslav Mikhailovich

Molotov, Vyacheslav Mikhailovich (1890–1986)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
89 words

...). A loyal ally of Stalin , he became a full member of the Politburo in 1926 . As foreign minister, one of Molotov's first acts was to sign the Nazi-Soviet Pact ( 1939 ) with von Ribbentrop . His enthusiastic use of the veto in the UN Security Council contributed to the Cold War . He lost favour under Nikita Khrushchev , and was demoted and expelled from the Communist Party in 1962 . Molotov was readmitted in 1984...

McCarthy, Joseph Raymond

McCarthy, Joseph Raymond (1908–57)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
100 words

...Joseph Raymond ( 1908–57 ) US Republican senator , leader of the crusade against alleged communists in the US government. Taking advantage of anti-communist sentiment in the Cold War , he widened his attack to other sectors of public life including the film industry. During the period of ‘McCarthyism’ many of those accused of communism were blacklisted. McCarthy polarized US society; many regarded his hearings as show trials or witch-hunts, while others considered him a hero. In 1954 , his House Un-American Activities Committee ( HUAC ) turned...

Central Intelligence Agency

Central Intelligence Agency   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
100 words

...Intelligence Agency ( CIA ) US government agency established to co-ordinate the intelligence activities of government departments and agencies responsible for US national security. Founded In 1947 , it played a major role during the Cold War , supporting anti-communist movements. At times the CIA has come under attack for overstepping its mandate and interfering in the internal affairs of foreign nations. Having no domestic jurisdiction, it was severely criticized for its involvement in the Watergate affair . It advises and is directed by the ...

Nehru, Jawaharlal

Nehru, Jawaharlal (1889–1964)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
112 words

...the British between 1921 and 1945 . He played a leading role in the negotiations with Mountbatten and Jinnah that led to the independence of India and Pakistan. As the first prime minister of an independent India, Nehru followed a foreign policy of non-alignment in the Cold War and became a respected leader of the Third...

Reagan, Ronald Wilson

Reagan, Ronald Wilson (1911–2004)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
143 words

...he adopted aggressive measures against opponents abroad - invading Grenada ( 1983 ), and undermining the Sandinista regime in Nicaragua. While pursuing his Strategic Defence Initiative ( SDI , or ‘Star Wars’), Reagan reached a historic nuclear disarmament treaty ( 1987 ) with Mikhail Gorbachev that signalled an end to the Cold War . The Iran-Contra affair overshadowed the final year of his...

World War 2

World War 2 (1939–45)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
381 words

...Japan continued to resist, but surrendered in August after atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Estimates of the numbers killed in World War 2 exceed 50 million. The great majority of the dead were civilians, many murdered in Nazi concentration camps . Politically, two former allies, the USA and the Soviet Union, emerged as dominant world powers, with antagonistic ideologies. See also Cold ...

disarmament

disarmament   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
181 words

...USA and the Soviet Union signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty ( 1963 ) and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty ( 1968 ), which provided for an international inspectorate. A series of strategic arms limitation talks ( SALT ) followed. In the early 1980s, intensification of the Cold War froze all disarmament efforts. In 1986 START (strategic arms reduction talks) superseded SALT, resulting in the Intermediate Nuclear Forces ( INF ) Treaty ( 1987 ), which reduced the superpowers' arsenal of short-range, intermediate missiles by c .2000 (4% of the total...

Soviet Union

Soviet Union   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
1,541 words

...the Union. War with Finland led to the formation of the Karelo‐Finnish republic. On June 22, 1941 , Germany invaded Russia. The failure of the siege of Stalingrad ( 1943 ) led to the surrender of 330,000 Axis troops and was a decisive turning‐point in World War 2 . The Red Army's counter‐offensive liberated much of e Europe. World War 2 devastated the Soviet Union, with an estimated 25 million Soviet lives lost. The Soviet Union and the USA emerged as the two post‐war superpowers. Their antagonistic ideologies and ambitions led to the Cold War . Not only...

Serbia

Serbia   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
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Length:
690 words
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...a continental climate. The highlands have cold, snowy winters while the Pannonian Plains have hot, arid summers, and heavy rains in the spring and autumn. History South Slavs moved into the region c. 1,500 years ago. They adopted Orthodox Christianity under Byzantine rule. Serbia was the leading Balkan power until its defeat by the Ottoman Turks in 1389 . In 1459 , it became a province of the Ottoman Empire . In 1829 , Serbia gained autonomy under Russian protection. In 1867 , Milan Obrenovic began a war in support of a rebellion against Turkish rule...

Macedonia, Republic of

Macedonia, Republic of   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
619 words
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4

...cold and snowfall is often heavy. The climate is fairly continental with rainfall throughout the year. Average temperatures in Skopje range from 1°C [34°F] in January to 24°C [75°F] in July. The average annual rainfall in the city is 550mm [21in]. History (For history pre-1913, see Macedon ) Politics The Balkan Wars ( 1912-13 ) ended with the flight of thousands of Macedonians into Bulgaria and the division of Macedonia into Greek Macedonia in the S, Bulgarian Macedonia in the SE and, largest, Serbian Macedonia in the N and centre. At the end of World War 1...

Czech Republic

Czech Republic   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
799 words
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...The country experiences a humid continental climate, with warm summers and cold winters. The average rainfall is moderate, with 500 to 750mm [20 to 30in] annually in lowland areas. History The ancestors of the Czech people began to settle in what is now the Czech Republic around 1,500 years ago. Bohemia, in the W, became important in the 10th century as a kingdom within the Holy Roman Empire. By the 14th century, Prague was one of Europe's major cultural centres. Religious wars in the first half of the 15th century led many Czech people to become...

Jordan

Jordan   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
Feb 2014
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
904 words
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...After the first Arab-Israeli War ( 1948-9 ) Jordan acquired the remaining Arab parts of Palestine, the West Bank , which were incorporated into the state in 1950 . This incensed the Palestinians and King Abdullah was assassinated in 1951 . His son Hussein I acceded in 1953 . In 1958 , Jordan formed the short-lived Arab Federation with Iraq. The West Bank, including east Jerusalem , was lost to Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967 , forcing many Palestinians to seek refuge in Jordan. Jordan became embroiled in a civil war with Palestinian independence...

Finland

Finland   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
708 words
Illustration(s):
4

...independence. Civil war ( January-May 1918 ) broke out between the Russian-backed Red Guard and the German-backed White Guard led by Carl Mannerheim . The White Guard triumphed, and a republic was established in 1919 . At the outbreak of World War 2, Finland declared its neutrality. A Soviet invasion ( November 1939 ) resulted in the Russo-Finnish War and, in March 1940 , Finland ceded part of Karelia and Lake Ladoga to Russia. In 1941 , Finland allied itself to Germany and Finnish troops regained S Karelia. At the end of the war, Russia regained...

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