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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

cold war

cold war   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
112 words

...cold war (or Cold War ) . Wrongly written lower case by most people, it should properly have initial capitals ( the Cold War ) when referring to the years of suppressed hostilities between the USSR and the Western powers after the 1939–45 war. After the collapse of Soviet Communism, the phrase disappeared along with the concept it described. It survives, however, in the weakened sense of ‘a state of rivalry and tension between two rival factions, persons, etc.’, in which meaning lower case is appropriate, e.g. Ultimately, however, the police could at...

Cold War

Cold War   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... War , for the years of suppressed hostility between the USSR and the West after 1945 , is spelt with initial capitals, the Cold War . The concept disappeared with the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe from about 1989 , but it is still referred to historically. The phrase survives, however, in the weakened sense of ‘a state of rivalry and tension between two rival factions, persons, etc’, in which meaning lower case is appropriate: Ultimately, however, the police could at best lower the temperature of the cold war between ghetto and suburb, not...

Phrasal Adjectives

Phrasal Adjectives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,154 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...fractions, in which the plural is retained <a two-thirds vote> . E. The Compound Conundrum. When the first or last element in a phrasal adjective is part of a compound noun, it too needs to be hyphenated: post-cold-war norms , not ✳post-cold war norms . Otherwise, as in that example, cold appears more closely related to post than to war . Writers frequently blunder by omitting one of the necessary hyphens—e.g.: • “Agnes Manyara's smooth kidney bean-colored complexion [read smooth kidney-bean-colored complexion ] is interrupted by a row of tiny,...

Adverbs

Adverbs   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,022 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... chillily , friendlily , ghastlily , holily , jollily , juvenilely , lovelily , sillily , statelily , supplely , surlily , uglily , wilily , and so on. You needn't be timid in writing or pronouncing such adverbs when they’re genuinely needed—e.g.: “During the year's cold months, when the abundant fenestration of her home office kept the room chilly, [the therapist] wore a pelisse of hand-tanned Native American buckskin that formed a somewhat ghastlily moist-looking flesh-colored background for the enclosing shapes her hands formed in her lap.” ...

Punctuation

Punctuation   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
7,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...It may even be imperative <Outside, the world goes on> . Fourth, the comma marks the beginning and end of a parenthetical word or phrase, an appositive, or a nonrestrictive clause—e.g.: “I am sure[,] however[,] that it will not happen.”/ “Fred[,] who is bald[,] complained of the cold.” Some writers mistakenly omit the second comma—e.g.: “After graduating from Rosemary Hall, an exclusive Greenwich girls’ school in 1965 , Ms. Close began touring with Up With People, the squeaky-clean pop group.” Betsy Sharkey , “Glenn Close: So Visible a Star, So Distant,” ...

Third World

Third World   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
188 words

...World . Originally, this term denoted the group of underdeveloped nations (especially in Africa and Asia) not aligned with either Western democracies (i.e., the First World —or Free World ) or Communist countries (i.e., the Second World ) during the Cold War. But as the world turns, so does the language. In his New Political Dictionary ( 1993 ), William Safire notes that “with the end of the bipolar geopolitical world in 1990 , a multipolar world was spawned; the third world became the South in a North–South relationship.” Safire quotes Henry...

dialogue

dialogue   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
323 words

...in their rituals and meditations, always eager to learn.” Notto R. Thelle , “Changed by the East,” Int'l Bull. of Missionary Research , 1 July 2006 , at 115. • “The United States dialogued [read spoke ] with the Soviet Union, even during the most dangerous phases of the Cold War, and the USSR was a far greater threat to world peace than Iran will ever be.” Pierre Atlas , “Cease Fire. Now!” Chicago Sun-Times , 6 Aug. 2006 , at B2. • “Together these aspects of engagement help us to better understand the climate of engagement within which this...

dastard

dastard   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
491 words

...on TNN, Cable Channel 37, beginning Monday.” Rita Sherrow , “Weekend TV Highlights,” Tulsa World , 27 Sept. 1996 , at 20. • “Of course that project would now have to be put on hold for the time being. Another grievance against the dastardly intruder.” Fred Saberhagen , A Coldness in the Blood 209 ( 2002...

wring

wring   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
558 words

...that once dogged her everywhere she went.” Bob Thompson , “Rediscovering Mary,” Toronto Sun , 10 Mar. 1996 , at S3. • “Don Wade . . . attended the United States–Greece basketball exhibition in Indianapolis and noted the hand-ringing [read hand-wringing ] on the bench.” “Cold War Heated Up Olympics,” Ark. Democrat-Gaz . , 16 July 1996 , at C2. Language-Change Index ✳hand-ringing for hand-wringing : Stage 1 Current ratio ( hand-wringing vs. ✳hand-ringing ):...

disinformation

disinformation   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...disinformation , first recorded in 1939 (applied to a German ‘Disinformation Service’), is a keyword in modern political vocabulary. At the height of the Cold War ( 1945–89 ) the dissemination of concocted false information was one of the most potent and dangerous weapons of governments, and especially of the various intelligence groups, the CIA, the KGB, MI6,...

analogous

analogous   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
112 words

...to keep its distance from the more general word similar . Originally confined largely to technical language, the word has spread rapidly into general usage (complemented by to or with ): Some have suggested that the effort needed to defeat the terrorists is analogous to the cold war — Commonweal , 2001 [ OEC...

disinformation

disinformation   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
107 words

..., a more sinister equivalent of propaganda , is first attested in 1939 in relation to a German ‘Disinformation Service’. Since then it has usually been applied to the activities of various intelligence and political groups during the Cold War and after: One technique of the Central Intelligence Agency…is dis-information…The Agency has expensive facilities for producing fake documents and other means for misleading foreigners — New Republic , 1975 When Saddam was captured in the ‘spider hole’ outside his hometown of Tikrit, his briefcase yielded...

recrudescence

recrudescence   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
131 words

...means in medical use ‘the breaking out again of a disease’, and in non-medical use tends to be restricted to contexts in which something harmful or unwelcome recurs: Cohen’s piece represents a recrudescence of the worst forms of cold war liberalism — Dissent , 2002 [ OEC ]. Fowler ( 1926 ) noted that the word was becoming fashionable among journalists in his day as a simple synonym for ‘revival’ or ‘reappearance’. He called this a ‘disgusting use’, but the word is occasionally used of something neutral or even positive in its effects. Since it is...

tautology

tautology   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
133 words

...prospects, past history, no other alternative , the general consensus ). Others occur in the way sentences are put together (the tautologous words are printed in bold): The activities of the club are not limited only to golf / There is no need for undue haste / The Cold War came to a final close in Germany yesterday . Except when used as a literary or rhythmic device in which the effect is intentional, this kind of tautology is normally regarded as an error and should be...

analogous

analogous   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
131 words

...more general word similar . Originally confined largely to technical language, the word has spread rapidly into general use, and is usually complemented by to , or occasionally by with : Some have suggested that the effort needed to defeat the terrorists is analogous to the cold war — Commonweal , 2001...

vogue words

vogue words   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
263 words

...with events of particular public interest (such as yomping = marching over heavy terrain, used by Royal Marines in the Falklands war of 1982 , and hardly used since). Others fall in the category of ‘popularized technicalities’ (such as chain reaction , parameter , and persona ). When Fowler wrote ( 1926 ), the vogue words to which he drew attention included acid test, asset, distinctly (as in distinctly colder ), far-flung (which he liked, in the right place), frock (= woman’s dress), intensive, mentality, unthinkable , and vision (=...

tautology

tautology   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
347 words

...gone unnoticed or unintended by the writer or speaker. Tautological phrases such as free gift, in this day and age, new innovation , and lonely isolation can be condemned at once. So can the use shown in a report ‘by Our Foreign Staff’ in The Times ( 9 Sept. 1994 ): The Cold War came to a final close in Germany yesterday with the withdrawal of the last British soldier from West Berlin . For other examples of tautologous expressions or clauses, borderline (the hoi polloi , etc.) or otherwise, see pleonasm ; redundancy . Fowler ( 1926 ) cited...

nor

nor   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
369 words

...Mark are in London (M. Wesley, 1983 ), see neither 4 . 3 neither … nor … nor . Nor can be used to introduce a third or further item: e.g. Neither rain, nor cold, nor obscure polling places could keep voters from their civic duty yesterday (referring to the US presidential election of Nov. 1992 ); But the comment that receives the heartiest agreement concerns neither the war, nor the earthquake, nor the crime rate—Observer Mag. , 1992 . 4 CGEL (13.36) points out that in non-correlative sentences containing a negative in the first element ...

who and whom

who and whom   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
683 words

...whom [read: who ] he says ruined his life — Sunday Times , 1990 . Note also constructions in which a whole clause introduced by who is the object of a verb or preposition; in these cases also, who is correct: The staff have noisy arguments about who should siesta on the cold stone floor — Len Deighton , 1976 She wanted him to love her for who she really was — Times , 1998...

shall and will

shall and will   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,295 words

...think we will ask Mr. Fraser’s opinion,’ she said coldly (V. S. Pritchett); I will invite them to tea! (A. Brookner). 2 For the second and third persons, singular and plural, the position is reversed. ( a ) You, he, she, it , or they will express the simple future, e.g. Seraphina will last much longer than a car. She’ll probably last longer than you will (G. Greene); Will it disturb you if I keep the lamp on for a bit? (S. Hill); Presently Claudia says, ‘What will you do when the war’s over?’ (P. Lively). ( b ) You, he, she, it , or ...

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