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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission: Let us not be deceived – we are today in the midst of a cold war. The phrase is said to have been suggested to him by Herbert B. Swope , former editor of the New York World . By 1948 , as the international situation grew more tense, Baruch was telling a Senate committee: We are in the midst of a cold war which is getting warmer. See also Cold War Warrior ; Détente ; Eisenhower Doctrine ; End of History ; Hawks and doves ; McCarthyism ; Nato ; New World Order ; Peaceful coexistence ; Reagan...

Cold War Warrior

Cold War Warrior   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

... War Warrior or Cold Warrior . A term for a US politician or other prominent person who took a hawkish stance ( see Hawks and doves ) in the Cold War . The term first arose in the late 1950s. Notable Cold War Warriors have included Edward Teller , ‘the Father of the H-bomb’ (and the partial inspiration of Dr Strangelove ), General Curtis ‘Bombs Away’ LeMay ( see Bomb them back into the Stone Age ), General Douglas MacArthur (the American Caesar ), Ronald Reagan (the Great Communicator ; see also Evil Empire ) and Margaret Thatcher (the ...

Lallans

Lallans   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Dictionary of the Scottish Language: I’ the how-dumb-deid o’ the cauld hairst nicht The warl’ like an eemis stane Wags i’ the lift; An’ my eerie memories fa’ Like a yowdendrift. [ how-dumb-deid (Jamieson) ‘the middle of the night, when silence reigns; Ayrshire’; cauld (general) cold; hairst (general) autumn; nicht (general) night; warl’ (general) world; eemis (Jamieson) insecurely balanced, toppling; stane (general) stone; lift (archaic) sky; fa ’ (general) fall; yowdendrift (Jamieson) ‘snow driven by the wind’] Literary Lallans remains viable...

Liberia

Liberia   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...can be seen in Settler Da pekin cryin , Kru Di pekin de krai (The child is crying), Settler I ain see him , Kru A neva siam . Distinctively Liberian words include: bugabug termite, dumboy boiled, pounded cassava, favour to resemble (compare AmE), fresh cold a runny nose, head cold, groundpea peanut, groundnut, jina spirits, kanki measurement for rice (around two cups), kwi a foreigner, outside child a child acknowledged although born outside marriage, sasse cheeky, smart, sassy. Traditionally, the standard has been emphasized and the...

African American English

African American English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,435 words

...as ‘We comin’ for We’re coming and ‘We be here’ for We’ll be here . (2) A syllabic /n/ commonly replaces /ŋ/ in -ing forms: ‘comin’ and ‘runnin’ for coming and running . (3) Word-final consonant clusters are reduced: ‘des’ for desk , ‘tes’ for test , ‘col’ for cold . (4) Past-tense endings are also absent in such clusters: ‘look’ for looked , ‘talk’ for talked . (5) Word-initial /d/ often takes the place of / ð ‎/, as in ‘dat day’ for that day and ‘dis house’ for this house . (6) Word-final /f/ often replaces /θ/, as in ‘boof’ for...

Word

Word   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
2,085 words

...to position, direction, space, and time. In principle, such words are a closed set to which new items are seldom added. As lubricants, grammatical words are like affixes: the out in throw out is like the prefix e -in eject ; the before in before the war means the same as pre -in pre-war . They can also function like affixes, as in he-man and yes-man . The onomastic word. The word in terms of naming establishes special, often unique reference: the difference between Napoleon and emperor . It may be simple like Smith or complex like Smithsonian...

Classical Compound

Classical Compound   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
4,958 words

...little smallish; small-minded; little-used; belittle L — G micr microscope; microcosmic 11.6 V hot; warm red-hot; hot-headed; warm-hearted; warm up L cal(1) calorific G therm thermometer; thermal; isotherm 11.7 V cold cold-blooded; ice-cold L frig frigid; refrigeration G cry cryogenic 11.8 V high high-born; height; heighten L alt altitude; altimeter G acr acropolis; acrophobia 11.9 V deep; low deep-seated; deepen; low-born; lowly; low-lying; below L ...

doom

doom   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...crack of doom: see crack . doom and gloom a general feeling of pessimism or despondency. This expression, sometimes found as gloom and doom , was particularly pertinent to fears about a nuclear holocaust during the cold war period of the 1950s and 1960s. It became a catchphrase in the 1968 film Finian's Rainbow...

button

button   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...button: see bright . button your lip remain silent. informal on the button 1 punctually. 2 exactly right. informal, chiefly US press the button initiate an action or train of events. informal During the cold war period, this expression was often used with reference to the possible action of the US or Soviet presidents in starting a nuclear war. push ( or press) someone's buttons be successful in arousing or provoking a reaction in someone. ...

bridge

bridge   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...burn your bridges: see burn your boats at burn . cross that bridge when you come to it deal with a problem when and if it arises. 1998 Spectator As to what would happen to the case for non-proliferation when the Cold War was won, the allies would cross that bridge when they came to it, which seemed at the time well beyond any foreseeable...

red

red   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...better dead than red the prospect of nuclear war is preferable to that of a Communist society. This expression was a cold-war slogan; it was reversed by the nuclear disarmament campaigners of the late 1950s as better red than dead . in the red in debt, overdrawn, or losing money. Red ink was traditionally used to indicate debit items and balances in accounts. Compare with in the black ( at black ) . paint the town red: see paint . red as a beetroot (of a person) red-faced, typically through embarrassment. the red carpet used in reference to...

iron

iron   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...they reach the critical temperature at which they can be shaped or used. an iron curtain an impenetrable barrier, especially the Iron Curtain , the physical and other barriers preventing the passage of people and information between the Soviet bloc and the West during the cold war. In the late 18th century, an iron curtain was literally a fire curtain in a theatre, but the figurative sense was in use from the early 19th century, well before Winston Churchill observed in a speech in March 1946 that ‘an iron curtain has descended across the Continent...

cold

cold   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...rejection. cold steel weapons such as swords or knives collectively. cold turkey the abrupt and complete cessation of taking a drug to which one is addicted; the phrase derives from one of the symptoms, the development of ‘goose-flesh’ on the skin from a sudden chill, caused by this. Cold War a state of political hostility existing between the Soviet bloc countries and the Western powers after the Second World War, characterized by threats, violent propaganda, subversive activities, and other measures short of open warfare. in cold blood without...

Truman doctrine

Truman doctrine   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...the principle that the US should give support to countries or peoples threatened by Soviet forces or Communist insurrection. First expressed in 1947 by US President Harry S. Truman ( 1884–1972 ), the doctrine was seen by the Communists as an open declaration of the cold war...

nuclear

nuclear   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...nuclear family a couple and their dependent children, regarded as a basic social unit. nuclear umbrella the supposed protection gained from an alliance with a country possessing nuclear weapons. nuclear winter a period of abnormal cold and darkness predicted to follow a nuclear war, caused by a layer of smoke and dust in the atmosphere blocking the sun's...

trench

trench   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... the trenches is the term used for the battlefields of northern France and Belgium in the First World War. trench fever a highly contagious rickettsial disease transmitted by lice, that infested soldiers in the trenches in the First World War. trench foot a painful condition of the feet caused by long immersion in cold water or mud and marked by blackening and death of surface tissue, often suffered by soldiers in the trenches in the First World War...

Varina

Varina   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...the ) – as was his wont with his women – upon Jane Waring , the daughter of the Archdeacon of Dromore to whom he proposed marriage, largely out of boredom, in 1696 . He was then 29 and undoubtedly attracted to her sexually, as he admits in a letter: … a violent desire is little better than a distemper, and therefore men are not to blame in looking after a cure. I find myself hugely infected with this malady. In time he was glad to distance himself from her, effectively driving her away by a distinctly cold letter written in 1700 : I shall be blessed to have...

Shadwell

Shadwell   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of London Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...in 1669 , when its 8,000 residents included many seafarers. By the early 19th century much of the district had become overcrowded and insanitary and its character did not fundamentally alter until after the Second World War, when council blocks sprouted in all corners. The shape and soul of Shadwell are reflected in its name. Shadwell! Cold, grey, stony syllables, without lustre or savour; flat to the eye and the palate. thomas burke : More Limehouse Nights , ‘The Yellow Scarf’ ( 1921...

window

window   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...opportunity a free or suitable interval or period of time for a particular event or action; the expression was first used in connection with the US–Soviet arms race in the early 1980s. window of vulnerability an opportunity to attack something that is at risk (especially as a cold war claim that America's land-based missiles were easy targets for a Soviet first strike). window tax a tax on windows or similar openings that was imposed in the UK in 1695 and abolished in 1851 ; while it was in force, a number of windows in larger houses were bricked up to...

Yeats, W[illiam] B[utler]

Yeats, W[illiam] B[utler] (1865–1939)   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...in Roquebrunne in France on 28 January 1939 . The Second World War delayed until 1948 the fulfilment of his wishes about his final resting-place, as anticipated in his epitaph in Last Poems ( 1939 ), by which time he was celebrated even by late detractors as a great Irishman and a towering literary figure: Under bare Ben Bulben's head In Drumcliff churchyard Yeats is laid … No marble, no conventional phrase, On limestone quarried near the spot By his command these words are cut: Cast a cold eye On life, on death. Horseman, pass...

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