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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Cold War

Cold War ([Hist.])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
97 words

... War [Hist.] A state of political hostility which existed between the Soviet bloc countries and the Western powers after the Second World War. > A long-lasting state of hostility between countries, organizations, or people Already, there are signs of a new Cold War emerging as the US and China seek to curry favour with poor African countries that are seen to have potential as oil suppliers. Guardian Unlimited columnists 2005 The strong showings of the ANC and the DA in Wednesday's general election may sharpen the cold war between the two parties. Daily...

cold war

cold war   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
112 words

...cold war (or Cold War ) . Wrongly written lower case by most people, it should properly have initial capitals ( the Cold War ) when referring to the years of suppressed hostilities between the USSR and the Western powers after the 1939–45 war. After the collapse of Soviet Communism, the phrase disappeared along with the concept it described. It survives, however, in the weakened sense of ‘a state of rivalry and tension between two rival factions, persons, etc.’, in which meaning lower case is appropriate, e.g. Ultimately, however, the police could at...

Cold War

Cold War   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... War , for the years of suppressed hostility between the USSR and the West after 1945 , is spelt with initial capitals, the Cold War . The concept disappeared with the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe from about 1989 , but it is still referred to historically. The phrase survives, however, in the weakened sense of ‘a state of rivalry and tension between two rival factions, persons, etc’, in which meaning lower case is appropriate: Ultimately, however, the police could at best lower the temperature of the cold war between ghetto and suburb, not...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission: Let us not be deceived – we are today in the midst of a cold war. The phrase is said to have been suggested to him by Herbert B. Swope , former editor of the New York World . By 1948 , as the international situation grew more tense, Baruch was telling a Senate committee: We are in the midst of a cold war which is getting warmer. See also Cold War Warrior ; Détente ; Eisenhower Doctrine ; End of History ; Hawks and doves ; McCarthyism ; Nato ; New World Order ; Peaceful coexistence ; Reagan...

Cold War Warrior

Cold War Warrior   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

... War Warrior or Cold Warrior . A term for a US politician or other prominent person who took a hawkish stance ( see Hawks and doves ) in the Cold War . The term first arose in the late 1950s. Notable Cold War Warriors have included Edward Teller , ‘the Father of the H-bomb’ (and the partial inspiration of Dr Strangelove ), General Curtis ‘Bombs Away’ LeMay ( see Bomb them back into the Stone Age ), General Douglas MacArthur (the American Caesar ), Ronald Reagan (the Great Communicator ; see also Evil Empire ) and Margaret Thatcher (the ...

Phrasal Adjectives

Phrasal Adjectives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,154 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...fractions, in which the plural is retained <a two-thirds vote> . E. The Compound Conundrum. When the first or last element in a phrasal adjective is part of a compound noun, it too needs to be hyphenated: post-cold-war norms , not ✳post-cold war norms . Otherwise, as in that example, cold appears more closely related to post than to war . Writers frequently blunder by omitting one of the necessary hyphens—e.g.: • “Agnes Manyara's smooth kidney bean-colored complexion [read smooth kidney-bean-colored complexion ] is interrupted by a row of tiny,...

Adverbs

Adverbs   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,022 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... chillily , friendlily , ghastlily , holily , jollily , juvenilely , lovelily , sillily , statelily , supplely , surlily , uglily , wilily , and so on. You needn't be timid in writing or pronouncing such adverbs when they’re genuinely needed—e.g.: “During the year's cold months, when the abundant fenestration of her home office kept the room chilly, [the therapist] wore a pelisse of hand-tanned Native American buckskin that formed a somewhat ghastlily moist-looking flesh-colored background for the enclosing shapes her hands formed in her lap.” ...

Punctuation

Punctuation   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
7,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...It may even be imperative <Outside, the world goes on> . Fourth, the comma marks the beginning and end of a parenthetical word or phrase, an appositive, or a nonrestrictive clause—e.g.: “I am sure[,] however[,] that it will not happen.”/ “Fred[,] who is bald[,] complained of the cold.” Some writers mistakenly omit the second comma—e.g.: “After graduating from Rosemary Hall, an exclusive Greenwich girls’ school in 1965 , Ms. Close began touring with Up With People, the squeaky-clean pop group.” Betsy Sharkey , “Glenn Close: So Visible a Star, So Distant,” ...

Third World

Third World   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
188 words

...World . Originally, this term denoted the group of underdeveloped nations (especially in Africa and Asia) not aligned with either Western democracies (i.e., the First World —or Free World ) or Communist countries (i.e., the Second World ) during the Cold War. But as the world turns, so does the language. In his New Political Dictionary ( 1993 ), William Safire notes that “with the end of the bipolar geopolitical world in 1990 , a multipolar world was spawned; the third world became the South in a North–South relationship.” Safire quotes Henry...

Lallans

Lallans   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Dictionary of the Scottish Language: I’ the how-dumb-deid o’ the cauld hairst nicht The warl’ like an eemis stane Wags i’ the lift; An’ my eerie memories fa’ Like a yowdendrift. [ how-dumb-deid (Jamieson) ‘the middle of the night, when silence reigns; Ayrshire’; cauld (general) cold; hairst (general) autumn; nicht (general) night; warl’ (general) world; eemis (Jamieson) insecurely balanced, toppling; stane (general) stone; lift (archaic) sky; fa ’ (general) fall; yowdendrift (Jamieson) ‘snow driven by the wind’] Literary Lallans remains viable...

dialogue

dialogue   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
323 words

...in their rituals and meditations, always eager to learn.” Notto R. Thelle , “Changed by the East,” Int'l Bull. of Missionary Research , 1 July 2006 , at 115. • “The United States dialogued [read spoke ] with the Soviet Union, even during the most dangerous phases of the Cold War, and the USSR was a far greater threat to world peace than Iran will ever be.” Pierre Atlas , “Cease Fire. Now!” Chicago Sun-Times , 6 Aug. 2006 , at B2. • “Together these aspects of engagement help us to better understand the climate of engagement within which this...

Liberia

Liberia   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...can be seen in Settler Da pekin cryin , Kru Di pekin de krai (The child is crying), Settler I ain see him , Kru A neva siam . Distinctively Liberian words include: bugabug termite, dumboy boiled, pounded cassava, favour to resemble (compare AmE), fresh cold a runny nose, head cold, groundpea peanut, groundnut, jina spirits, kanki measurement for rice (around two cups), kwi a foreigner, outside child a child acknowledged although born outside marriage, sasse cheeky, smart, sassy. Traditionally, the standard has been emphasized and the...

dastard

dastard   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
491 words

...on TNN, Cable Channel 37, beginning Monday.” Rita Sherrow , “Weekend TV Highlights,” Tulsa World , 27 Sept. 1996 , at 20. • “Of course that project would now have to be put on hold for the time being. Another grievance against the dastardly intruder.” Fred Saberhagen , A Coldness in the Blood 209 ( 2002...

wring

wring   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
558 words

...that once dogged her everywhere she went.” Bob Thompson , “Rediscovering Mary,” Toronto Sun , 10 Mar. 1996 , at S3. • “Don Wade . . . attended the United States–Greece basketball exhibition in Indianapolis and noted the hand-ringing [read hand-wringing ] on the bench.” “Cold War Heated Up Olympics,” Ark. Democrat-Gaz . , 16 July 1996 , at C2. Language-Change Index ✳hand-ringing for hand-wringing : Stage 1 Current ratio ( hand-wringing vs. ✳hand-ringing ):...

African American English

African American English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,435 words

...as ‘We comin’ for We’re coming and ‘We be here’ for We’ll be here . (2) A syllabic /n/ commonly replaces /ŋ/ in -ing forms: ‘comin’ and ‘runnin’ for coming and running . (3) Word-final consonant clusters are reduced: ‘des’ for desk , ‘tes’ for test , ‘col’ for cold . (4) Past-tense endings are also absent in such clusters: ‘look’ for looked , ‘talk’ for talked . (5) Word-initial /d/ often takes the place of / ð ‎/, as in ‘dat day’ for that day and ‘dis house’ for this house . (6) Word-final /f/ often replaces /θ/, as in ‘boof’ for...

Word

Word   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
2,085 words

...to position, direction, space, and time. In principle, such words are a closed set to which new items are seldom added. As lubricants, grammatical words are like affixes: the out in throw out is like the prefix e -in eject ; the before in before the war means the same as pre -in pre-war . They can also function like affixes, as in he-man and yes-man . The onomastic word. The word in terms of naming establishes special, often unique reference: the difference between Napoleon and emperor . It may be simple like Smith or complex like Smithsonian...

de Lauretis, Teresa

de Lauretis, Teresa (b. 1938)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,057 words

...imaginary closure, and false consciousness. De Lauretis asks whether consciousness has to be always already false consciousness or whether the opposition in Lacan between the truth of the unconscious and the deception of the conscious might not be the discursive product of a “cold war” in which Eco's contrary refusal to countenance the subjective in the social also participates. Her next step is to revalue the social spaces of everyday life as sites for the production and changing of meaning. The gendering of the bodies who participate in these everyday...

Classical Compound

Classical Compound   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
4,958 words

...little smallish; small-minded; little-used; belittle L — G micr microscope; microcosmic 11.6 V hot; warm red-hot; hot-headed; warm-hearted; warm up L cal(1) calorific G therm thermometer; thermal; isotherm 11.7 V cold cold-blooded; ice-cold L frig frigid; refrigeration G cry cryogenic 11.8 V high high-born; height; heighten L alt altitude; altimeter G acr acropolis; acrophobia 11.9 V deep; low deep-seated; deepen; low-born; lowly; low-lying; below L ...

Rhetorical vision

Rhetorical vision   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,966 words

...theory to study the rhetoric of political campaigns. Bormann, Cragan, and Shields, “An Expansion of the Rhetorical Vision Component of the Symbolic Convergence Theory: The Cold War Paradigm Case” ( Communication Monographs , 64, March, 1996 ) surveyed and synthesized the results of eighty-seven fantasy theme analysis studies in their analysis of the creation and demise of the Cold War rhetorical vision. In the early years of the development of symbolic convergence theory, a common complaint was that fantasy was a confusing technical term for a method that...

Debate

Debate   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,369 words

...primarily responsible for the onset of the Cold War.” The aim of the resolution is to capture in a clear, precise, and unbiased statement just what is in dispute. It is intended to favor neither side and not to predetermine the outcome. Resolutions are grouped in various categories, with the most common distinction being one among resolutions of fact, value, and policy. Resolutions of fact actually tend to be concerned with disputes about interpretation, as in the example of the historians' debate about the Cold War, rather than with disagreements about claims...

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