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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Old Vicarage, The

Old Vicarage, The   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...made in England since the Second World War. The Arts and Crafts vicarage was bought in 1973 by Alan Gray and Graham Robeson—at first a weekend house, it became their permanent abode in 1986 . A weekend garden expanded into a full-time garden and by 2003 , when it occupied 5 hectares/12 acres, Gray and Robeson showed no signs of ceasing its expansion. The site, as flat as only Norfolk knows how to do, is close to the sea, which has a pronounced effect on the microclimate and also exposes the garden to fierce, cold east winds. Windbreaks have been...

Ehemalige Abtei Seligenstadt

Ehemalige Abtei Seligenstadt   Reference library

Dr Bernd Modrow

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Virgin Mary), the Thiergarten (where deer were kept), and the garden beside the abbot's quarters. An orangery , built in 1757 , is a rare survival of its date. It has also been possible to reconstruct domestic facilities of monastic life such as the stables, dovecote, beehives, cold rooms, well, and mill wheels. The monastery with its grounds has become an important cultural centre for the region. Dr Bernd...

Austria

Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...like beech and maple ( Acer campestre, A. pseudoplatanus , and A. platanoides ) and expands southwards towards Lake Neusiedl, characterized by the pannonic climate. In all c .3,100 native plants are found of which c .80 species (notably alpines) are endemic. Extremes of hot and cold are found in Austria—with a maximum temperature of 38 °C/100 °F and a minimum of −20 °C/−4 °F. There is early evidence of gardening in Austria. Some archaeological sites, such as Hallstatt's salt mines, show signs of early Celtic or Avaric settlements and trade routes. Since the...

Finland

Finland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...suggest orchards and kitchen gardens, while nothing points at ambitious formal compositions. Yet a number of exotic ornamental flowering plants appear to have been commonly used by the end of the 17th century, many having medicinal uses as well. After a bleak period of wars and cold weather, interest grew in ornamental gardens, garden literature, and plants during the late 18th century. The influence of the first university of Finland, Åbo Academy, and the disciples of Carolus Linnaeus there, Pehr Kalm ( 1716–79 ) and Pehr Gadd ( 1727–97 ), was...

Hidcote Manor

Hidcote Manor   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Manor near Chipping Camden, Gloucestershire, England, has been one of the most influential English gardens of its time. The 17th-century house on a cold and windy hill was bought in 1907 by an American, Gertrude Winthrop, whose son Major Lawrence Johnston started to make a garden after the First World War. The garden is broadly in the tradition of Arts and Crafts gardens with a firmly patterned layout of walks, hedges, and compartments. Johnston had a strong architectural sensibility which he expressed both in the layout and in the plants which...

Canada

Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...still unknown. Many of their beloved garden plants (as well as weeds) nudged out native species, and the wholesale felling of trees from east to west degraded this fragile landscape with a speed previously unknown. Canada's climate seems to be either extremely hot or extremely cold. Parts of the Boreal Forest (a 360-km/600-mile wide band from Newfoundland in the east to Alaska in the west) have only 90 frost-free days annually; the semi-arid Prairie climate is prone to severe drought; the west coast rainforest is dripping wet a good deal of the year; and to...

Bulgaria

Bulgaria   Reference library

Assen Gasharov

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Centrally located in the Balkan Peninsula, Bulgaria has a temperate transitional-continental climate with four distinctive seasons. The southernmost parts enjoy warm Mediterranean influence, while the Black Sea softens the coastline climate in the east. Typically, winters are cold (down to −15 °C/5 °F) with a durable snow cover and summers are hot (up to 35 °C/95 °F) with occasional rain. Wet cool springs and autumns ensure proper vegetative periods. Abundant mountain ranges (up to 2,900 m/9,500 ft) seriously modify local weather patterns as in higher...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Climate The territory is vast, stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific and from the Arctic to the Black Sea, with a corresponding range of climates. In most of European Russia winters are very cold and summers warm, but subtropical conditions are enjoyed by the Black Sea. In January the average temperature in Archangel is −16 °C/4 °F, while in Sochi the thermometer only rarely drops below 0 °C/32 °F. In summer Archangel's average of 15 °C/59 °F compares with Sochi's 23 °C/74 °F. For Moscow and St Petersburg the average January temperatures are −10 °C/14...

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