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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

crisp

crisp   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...them potato chips ). The early market leader in Britain was Smith’s crisps, made by a company founded in Cricklewood, in northwest London, by Francis Leigh Smith after the First World War. Its plain unvarnished crisps had a small blue-paper twist of salt inside the packet that enabled eaters to season them to their own taste. After the Second World War Henry Walker, originally a Nottinghamshire butcher, turned his talents to manufacturing crisps in Leicester. Over the following decades, marked by the introduction of flavoured crisps (salt and vinegar, chicken...

Ice

Ice   Reference library

Virginia Scott Jenkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...from the 1840s to the 1860s. The refrigerated transport of meat came later. Until the late 1860s local butchers had slaughtered their own animals and chilled the meat in walk-in cold-storage boxes supplied with lake or river ice. Frozen meat was common in colder climates, where farmers and ranchers butchered their cattle and sheep in early winter, then packed the meat in outside cold boxes filled with ice and snow. The first shipload of commercially frozen beef was transported in 1869 from Indianola, Texas, to New Orleans, Louisiana, where it was served in...

Submarine Sandwiches

Submarine Sandwiches   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...cross section of French bread stuffed with roast beef and cheese. Today, po’boys may contain a fried fish filet or thinly sliced roast beef or cold cuts. If lettuce, tomatoes, and/or chopped cabbage are added, the sandwich is referred to as “dressed.” A variation is La Mediatrice , or “The Peacemaker,” a loaf stuffed with fried oysters. In Chicago, “Italian beef sandwiches” were sold by street vendors after World War I. Thin shavings of roasted beef, along with mozzarella and roasted peppers, were stuffed into Italian bread, which was then drenched in a beef...

Tailgate Picnics

Tailgate Picnics   Reference library

Jane C. Otto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...valuable commodity for the production of war materials. Many of the earliest woodies came equipped with a small trailer, commonly referred to as a “teardrop” because of its elliptical shape. These lightweight wooden trailers contained all of the equipment necessary to create thrifty and savory meals along the roadside: a gas or charcoal stove, cold-storage containers, a folding table, and sometimes chairs. In the United States, woodies were used primarily as service vehicles for lodges, clubs, and inns. Before World War II these vehicles were status symbols...

salad

salad   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...World War services slang). The characteristics it shares with the more usual type of salad are rawness and variety—and it is the notion of profuse variety that lies behind the more metaphorical applications of the word salad in modern times. In an 1893 issue of the New York Nation , for instance, a writer noted that ‘close at hand the building is an entertaining salad of styles’. The expression salad days ‘time of youthful inexperience’ originated in Shakespeare's Anthony and Cleopatra : ‘my salad days, when I was green in judgment, cold in blood’,...

International Aid

International Aid   Reference library

Kevin T. McIntyre and Barrett P. Brenton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...Act of 1954 , which authorized PL 480, was designed to dispose of federal surplus agricultural commodities, expand international trade, and create new foreign markets via economic development in developing nations. The act also furthered the U.S. geopolitical interests of the Cold War. Congressional desire to use “food as a weapon” of foreign policy to stop the global spread of communism was explicitly reflected in debate on S. 2475, which became PL 480. An overt emphasis on humanitarian food aid did not emerge until 1958 when Senator Hubert Humphrey (D-MN)...

mango

mango   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

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2013

...mango was an institution in Britain long before post-Second World War Asian immigration brought the actual fruit to our markets, and the jars of pickled mango that reached Britain from India in the second half of the seventeenth century led to the term mango being adopted for ‘pickle’ in general. John Evelyn, for instance, in his Acetaria ( 1699 ) gave recipes for ‘mangoes’ of walnuts and of cucumbers: ‘Boil [the cucumbers] in the Vinegar with Pepper, Cloves, Mace, &c…And when all is cold, add a good Spoonful of the best Mustard…and you have an excellent...

General Foods

General Foods   Reference library

Joseph M. Carlin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...tobacco giant Philip Morris bought General Foods. In 1989 General Foods and Kraft, which Philip Morris had bought the year before, were combined to form a food products division called Kraft General Foods. In 1995 the name was shortened to Kraft Foods Inc. [ See also Cereal, Cold ; Coffee ; Coffee Substitutes ; Jell-O ; Kellogg Company ; Kraft Foods ; Maxwell House ; Post Foods .] Bibliography Paulakepos, Paula , ed. International Directory of Company Histories , vol. 7, p. 272. Detroit: St. James Press, 1993. Joseph M....

Beer Mugs

Beer Mugs   Reference library

Jennifer Minnick

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...paid for. Around the time of the Revolutionary War, with the breakdown of communication between America and England, pewter fell out of use because tin could no longer be imported. In the early twenty-first century mugs are made predominately of stoneware and glass but are also made with other materials, such as plastic. Both the temperature and the material of a mug can affect the flavor of the beer. Some beer drinkers enjoy drinking beer from room-temperature stoneware mugs, whereas others prefer icy-cold plastic mugs. [ See also Beer ; Beer Barrels ; ...

Clambake

Clambake   Reference library

Esther Della Reese

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...with rocks, and a fire is built over them. When the rocks are white hot, they are covered with layers of seaweed, clams, and other foods. A wet tarp is laid over all until the food is cooked. Items typically included on the menu are lobster, corn, white potatoes, clam chowder, and cold beer. [ See also Clams ; New England Regional Cookery ; Picnics .] Bibliography Neustadt, Kathy . Clambake: A History and Celebration of an American Tradition . Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992. Perhaps the definitive work on the clambake, its true history, and...

Marshmallow Fluff

Marshmallow Fluff   Reference library

Clara Silverstein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...of gum. During the eleventh century and through the Middle Ages, the mallow sap was also dispensed as a cure for colds. The original Fluff recipe came from Archibald Query, a Boston-area man who made batches of it in Marshmallow Fluff.  Recipe booklet for Marshmallow Fluff. Courtesy of the Culinary Arts Museum at Johnson & Wales University his kitchen. He sold it door to door until the ingredients became too scarce during World War I. After the war, veterans H. Allen Durkee and Fred L. Mower pooled their savings and bought the recipe from Query for five...

Combat Food

Combat Food   Reference library

Paul Dickson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...Individual), which was a more nutritionally balanced descendant of the C Ration of World War II and Korea, and the new Long Range Patrol Ration (dubbed “Lurp”), a remarkably lightweight, compact ration that could be flexibly packaged because it had no cans. The key components were eight precooked, freeze-dried entrees (such as chicken stew or beef hash) that could be turned into hot meals with the addition of hot water. But this ration could also be eaten cold with cold water or dry, like popcorn. The Lurp also came with a sweet, cereal, coffee, cream, sugar,...

Toasts

Toasts   Reference library

Paul Dickson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...down to business. The following are a few examples: A drop of whiskey Ain’t a bad thing right here. —Bret Harte Here's to Prohibition, The devil take it! They’ve stolen our wine, So now we make it. —Toast to the Volstead Act Here's to today! For tomorrow we may be radioactive. —Cold War toast, ca. 1955 Here's to Hollywood—A place where people from Iowa Mistake each other for movie stars. —Fred Allen [ See also Drinking Songs .] Bibliography Dickson, Paul , ed. Toasts: Over 1,500 of the Best Toasts, Sentiments, Blessings, and Graces . New York: Crown, 1991....

Kitchen Gardening

Kitchen Gardening   Reference library

Elyse Friedman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...economic hardships of World War I triggered a major wave of kitchen gardening across the United States. The National War Commission, created in 1917 , encouraged citizens of all economic classes to contribute to the domestic war effort by growing liberty gardens (later known as victory gardens). Liberty gardens ( 1917–1920 ) frequently took the form of community gardens, also known as allotment gardens, cultivated on large, open spaces, such as vacant city lots or railroad yards. Despite its enormous success, the end of the war prompted the demise of the...

Fruit Juices

Fruit Juices   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...in the nineteenth century, the most common way of serving fruit juice was with added sugar and water in the form of “ades,” such as appleade, lemonade, orangeade, and strawberryade. These juices were sometimes served ice-cold and called “sherbet.” For a lighter drink, a few spoonfuls of these sweetened juices were stirred into cold water. By the nineteenth century, a wide range of fruit juices was used to flavor ice cream and soda fountain drinks. Fruit juices also were cooked with a large quantity of sugar and preserved for future use, mainly for use in...

Watermelon

Watermelon   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
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Current Version:
2013

...item in natural food stores, and it is served occasionally in restaurants, blended with lemonade. African Americans and Watermelons The stereotypical association between African Americans and watermelons is a post–Civil War phenomenon. Slaves grew and ate watermelons in the South, as did most other Americans. After the Civil War, Negro minstrels sang songs such as “The Watermelon Song” and “Oh, Dat Watermelon” in their shows. These songs were first published in the 1870s and were mainstream America's first printed evidence of an association between...

General Mills

General Mills   Reference library

Joseph M. Carlin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to its shareholders to create Darden Restaurants, Inc. In 2001 General Mills acquired Pillsbury, which had begun as the mill across the river more than one hundred years earlier, to create one of the world's largest food companies. [ See also Betty Crocker ; Cake ; Cereal, Cold ; Pillsbury ; Wheat .] Bibliography “General Mills.” In International Directory of Company Histories , vol. 36, edited by Jay P. Pederson . Chicago: St. James Press, 2001. General Mills. http://www.generalmills.com . Joseph M....

Kraft Foods

Kraft Foods   Reference library

Joseph M. Carlin and Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a $40 billion company with 97,000 employees. It is America's largest confectionary and food company. It markets over 70 major brands, including DiGiorno Pizza, Jell-O, Tang, Kool-Aid, Cadbury, and Toblerone; the company is headquartered in Northfield, Illinois. [ See also Cereal, Cold ; Cheese: Later Developments ; Crackers ; General Foods ; Jell-O ; Kool-Aid ; Maxwell House ; Nabisco ; Philadelphia Cheese Steak Sandwich ; Post Foods ; Tang ; Velveeta .] Bibliography “Kraft Foods Inc.” In International Directory of Company Histories , vol. 2, edited...

A&W Root Beer Stands

A&W Root Beer Stands   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...and Texas, Allen eventually bought out Wright, trademarked the A&W Root Beer logo (an arrow and target), and began to franchise his operation. A&W thrived during the Depression: by 1941 there were 260 A&W Root Beer stands nationwide. World War II, with its labor, beef, and sugar shortages, took its toll, but once the war ended, A&W began to grow anew. In the 1950s, Roy Allen sold the business to the Nebraskan Gene Hurtz, who formed the A&W Root Beer Company. Within ten years, the number of A&W outlets had increased to more than two thousand. The first A&W...

Popcorn

Popcorn   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and other salty snacks, which enhanced the sale of alcoholic beverages, thereby greatly improving their profits. World War II also affected popcorn consumption. Many foods were rationed during the war, but not popcorn. Consuming popcorn became “patriotic” as snack foods made with chocolate or sugar became scarce. During the war, the sale of sugar and chocolate was restricted, which further boosted the sale of popcorn. After the war, popcorn sales continued to increase. Popcorn remains a significant food in the United States. Popcorn is mature industry in...

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