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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

The Cold War and American Religion

The Cold War and American Religion   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Religion in America

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Religion
Length:
14,207 words

...camera about their respective Cold War experiences. 125 Notably, religion was treated very differently in two major new collections of Cold War scholarship. The Cambridge History of the Cold War , a three-volume affair published in 2010 , reverted to the practice of addressing religion in conjunction with culture. 126 In contrast, the more comprehensive Oxford Handbook of the Cold War , published in 2013 , devoted a full chapter specifically to “The Religious Cold War.” 127 Arguments that there was a “religious cold war,” albeit from authors differing...

godless

godless   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Atheism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
175 words

...in Gower Street’, inspired by Thomas Arnold’s criticisms of the fact that ‘it meddles with moral subjects … and yet does not require its Professors to be Christians’ ( 1837 ). In this regard, note also the wide currency of the phrase ‘godless Communism’ in the US in the Cold War era. More recently, ‘godless’ has increasingly been used in ironic and/or self-mocking ways. In this guise, the term has in many contexts been ‘reclaimed’ as a self-ascription among atheists and others ( see atheist pride ). As of early 2016 , for example, the University College...

Elkesaites

Elkesaites   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...“The consumptive are also to baptize themselves in cold water forty times in seven days, and likewise also those possessed by demons” (Hippolytus). The Elkesaites thus seem to have combined an initiatory rite of baptism with the practice of repeated washings, as did (in their own way) the community of Qumran (see Rule of the Community from Cave 1 at Qumran [1QS] and the Damascus Document [CD]). According to Josephus, the Essenes bathed themselves daily and did so “in cold water” ( The Jewish War 2.129). [See Josephus Flavius .] [See also ...

Pan-Turanism

Pan-Turanism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,981 words

...entered Ukraine in January 1944 , the government arrested Turkist leaders. There were trials in September, and their organizations were dissolved. At the start of the Cold War, however, charges against the Turkists were dismissed in higher courts and the movement was vindicated. In the multiparty period after 1945 , Turkism was again dormant, though it became an instrument of Cold War propaganda. In the early 1960s it was revived to counter the challenge from the left, especially the Workers Party of Turkey, permitted under the constitution of 1961 . The...

Messali al-Ḥajj

Messali al-Ḥajj   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... ( FLN ) and launched the war of independence the very next day. Messali al-Ḥajj, however, did not support the FLN. He renamed the branch of the MTLD still under his control the National Algerian Movement ( MNA ) and created a militia that fought the FLN in France until 1957 . The movement was finally wrecked by deaths and defections, and although it continued to exist until independence it was no longer a political force. Messali al-Ḥajj, who had fought so hard for Algeria 's independence, found himself out in the cold politically when his dream was...

Ahmad, Eqbal

Ahmad, Eqbal   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Eqbal . A critical thinker on world politics and the contemporary Arab-Islamic world, Eqbal Ahmad ( 1933–1999 ) wrote prolifically on a wide range of subjects. He addressed the rise of anticolonial movements, the Vietnam War, and the Cold War from the standpoint of third world victims—in particular the legacy of the anti-Soviet war in Afghanistan, Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism, nuclear proliferation, and Middle Eastern and South Asian politics. He died in Islamabad on May 11, 1999; he continued to agitate against nuclear arms testing on the Indian...

Clash of Civilizations

Clash of Civilizations   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...in Foreign Affairs and then in a 1996 book entitled The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order , the Harvard-based political scientist Samuel Huntington argued that the post–Cold War world order would be characterized by competition and divisions across civilizations, with cultural differences replacing the ideological fault lines of the Cold War era. Although states would remain the central actors in world politics, alliances would be dictated largely by civilization politics. The most important dividing line separates Western societies...

Pan-Turkism

Pan-Turkism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...on the role of Islam, partly because of their collaboration with the CUP in the past, and partly because of good relations with the Soviet Union and Iran. Although the Second World War ( 1939–1945 ) saw the sudden rise and collapse of Pan-Turanism in Turkey, Turanists (represented by Rıza Nur [ d. 1942 ] and Nihal Atsız [ d. 1975 ]) remained a marginal group during the Cold War; whereas Anatolianism (represented by Yahya Kemal Beyatlı [ d. 1958 ] and Remzi Oğuz Arık [ d. 1954 ]) dominated the discourse of Turkish nationalism in the period of multi-party...

Religious Freedom

Religious Freedom   Reference library

Ninan Koshy

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...liberty has assumed a new sense of urgency in recent years as religion has re-emerged as a major force on the global scene. Religion is front-page news in relation to civil and international conflicts including the war on terror. In general, this has distorted the understanding of religion and, therefore, of religious liberty. During the post-Cold War period in many countries, nationalism has been identified with the majority religion, thus weakening or rejecting the secular framework. This has adversely affected the religious liberty of those belonging to other...

Raemond, Florimond De

Raemond, Florimond De (1540–1601)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
604 words

...since truth was fought for on two fronts: scriptural and historical. Catholic practice was not always provable by scripture, so both history and tradition were used to justify many church practices. Raemond defended Catholic interpretation on both fronts, a cold warrior for his faith when the religious wars in France had not yet cooled. Boase, Alan . The Fortunes of Montaigne . Reprint, New York, 1970. Busch, Martin . Florimond de Raemond (vers 1540–1601) et l'Anabaptisme . Ph.D. diss., Université des Sciences Humaines, Faculté de Théologie Protestante,...

Henry II of France

Henry II of France (1519–1559)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
698 words

...'s cousin, as part of a Franco-papal alliance. Henry never grew to love his wife but found emotional fulfillment with Diane de Poitiers , twenty years his senior, who remained his mistress to his death. In 1536 Henry's older brother died, and he became Dauphin. Despite the coldness in the relationship between father and son, Francis provided Henry a good training in the affairs of state. When Henry ascended the throne in 1547 , he quickly made a number of changes in the system of governance, in particular creating the offices of the four secretaries of...

Saʿūd, Fayṣal ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Āl

Saʿūd, Fayṣal ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Āl   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
900 words
Illustration(s):
1

...both secularism and socialism, Fayṣal supported Yemeni tribes who favored the monarchy and, in the aftermath of the 1967 Arab–Israeli War, sought a rapprochement with Egypt to end the Arab Cold War ( 1957–1967 ). By early 1973 , however, Fayṣal perceived the need to link the kingdom 's oil power to the unending Arab–Israeli conflict, especially as Washington failed to note Saudi pleas. Following the outbreak of the 1973 war, and the U.S. decision to create a weapons air-bridge to Israel, Fayṣal authorized an oil embargo against both the United States and...

Nasser, Gamal Abdel

Nasser, Gamal Abdel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
713 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Council in 1954 and was elected president of the Egyptian Republic in 1956 , a post that he held until his death in 1970 . He was one of the generation of Third World leaders who had to face the demands of ruling postcolonial countries in the age of the superpowers and the Cold War, while at the same time coping with the problems of economic development in poor, overpopulated countries. In addition, Egypt under Nasser became the center of the Arab world and Arab nationalism, and Nasser was seen as the leader who would unite Arabs in the struggle to...

Nasserism

Nasserism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...tract The Philosophy of the Revolution ( 1959 ). Nasserist ideology received fresh impetus from the Afro-Asian Bandung Conference of 1955 , and its influence grew as Nasser led opposition to the pro-Western Baghdad Pact, bought Soviet arms, and declared neutrality in the Cold War and defied of the old colonial powers. Nasserism attained new heights after the Anglo-French humiliation of Egypt in the 1956 Suez crisis. In the 1960s, Nasserism was the most potent political force in the eastern Arab world; its influence was much less in the Arab Maghrib...

Hassan II of Morocco

Hassan II of Morocco   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Sahara, precipitating Spain's withdrawal. The success and symbolism of the “Green March” added to the king's legitimacy, allowing him to consolidate his power even further. Valued for maintaining stability, Hassan developed strong relationships with Western nations during the Cold War. He was a skilled diplomat, and played a key, albeit secret role in Arab-Israeli negotiations, including Camp David in 1979 . In the early 1990s, the repressiveness of Hassan 's rule was mitigated by his establishment of the Consultative Council for Human Rights. He began...

Somalia

Somalia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,379 words

...society. In 1978 , after Somalia had been abandoned by the Soviet Union in the middle of its war against Ethiopia, the U.S. and other Western countries came to Siyad Barre's aid and propped up his regime with economic and military aid. This continued even after 1988 , when the regime bombarded and totally devastated its northern cities for harboring one of the armed resistance fronts. It was not until the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War in 1989 that this support faltered and, in January 1991 , Siyad Barre was driven out. Since the...

Philip II of Spain

Philip II of Spain (1527–1598)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,864 words

...with Rome. Government and Church Philip believed his chief obligations to his subjects were to provide justice, to maintain the Roman Catholic religion, and to defend them from enemies, domestic and foreign. He notoriously detested war but for most of his reign waged it in defense of his obligations. Escalating war costs drove him three times to renegotiate his debts ( 1557 , 1575 , 1597 ). He persuaded the cortes of Castile to raise taxes to levels that in time impaired Spain's economy, while the fair imposition he sought was compromised by local...

Wars of Religion

Wars of Religion   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,874 words

...Major , however, has argued that the nobility could readily adapt to the price rise and that, if some noble houses suffered economically, it was their expenditures on the civil wars that was the cause (“Noble Income and Inflation and the Wars of Religion in France,” American Historical Review 86 ( 1981 ), 21–48). If the issue of economic motives for noble involvement in the wars remains uncertain, the sincerity of many noble conversions to Calvinism does not. Nancy Roelker has shown the deep sincerity of many noblewomen in old families, such as the La...

Therapeutae

Therapeutae   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Is Free 86; The Jewish War 2.128–132): Therapeutae have a similar institution for Sabbath and Pentecost ( Life 36, 40, 81). Both groups love frugality ( Every Good Man Is Free 77; Apol. 11; The Jewish War 2.130, 133; Life 37) and live celibate lives ( Apol. 14–17; The Jewish War 2.121; Antiquities 18.21; Life 68). Finally, Torah study is the first love of both groups ( Every Good Man Is Free 88; The Jewish War 145; Life 25, 28, 75). Josephus, not Philo, tells how Essenes don a white garment to eat ( The Jewish War 2.131), as do the...

Orientalism

Orientalism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,085 words
Illustration(s):
2

...has become integrated into modern culture everywhere as a result of globalization. We’re all the Other to someone else. Paradoxically, although post–World War II disciplinary transformations effectively ended classic Orientalism as a discipline, the importance of Orientalism as a political lens for viewing the world was greatly enhanced following the events of September 11, 2001. By the 1970s, Cold War politics increasingly emphasized the intentional exploitation of religion and “civilization” by the eventual victors and their anti-Marxist allies around the...

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