You are looking at 1-20 of 166 entries  for:

  • All: Cold War x
clear all

View:

Overview

Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

godless

godless   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Atheism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
175 words

...in Gower Street’, inspired by Thomas Arnold’s criticisms of the fact that ‘it meddles with moral subjects … and yet does not require its Professors to be Christians’ ( 1837 ). In this regard, note also the wide currency of the phrase ‘godless Communism’ in the US in the Cold War era. More recently, ‘godless’ has increasingly been used in ironic and/or self-mocking ways. In this guise, the term has in many contexts been ‘reclaimed’ as a self-ascription among atheists and others ( see atheist pride ). As of early 2016 , for example, the University College...

homeostasis

homeostasis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
294 words

...principle before it was properly recognized by engineers, though it had been used as it were implicitly, without recognition or understanding. Cannon explained the regulation of body temperature by mechanisms such as perspiring when the body is too hot and shivering when it is too cold, as maintaining the body's equilibrium by feedback signals from what is needed to how what is needed can be attained. It is now clear that this is an extremely important principle for almost all physiological processes, and also for the guiding of skilled behaviour. (Published...

Herskovits, Melville Jean

Herskovits, Melville Jean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,350 words

...on access to archives for black scholars. He also opposed the establishment of an African Studies program at Fisk University, a black college in Nashville, Tennessee, during World War II. Nonetheless, in the postwar era, Herskovits played a key role in the development of African studies programs at American universities. American involvement in the Second World War and the Cold War induced policymakers to call for the creation of area studies programs to educate experts so that the United States could implement policies to serve its global interests....

Nation-Building

Nation-Building   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,787 words

...armed factions against each other in a war of attrition. This struggle for liberation in Zimbabwe has left the two main ethnic groups still disunited. Similarly, in the Portuguese territories, ideological differences between rival guerrilla groups have fractured the resulting states even years after political independence. Amid this chaos, the world powers engaged in a Cold War ideological struggle in Africa. Moscow and Beijing, in their quest for support, gained adherents in almost all African states where liberation wars had to be fought to obtain...

TRUE, Charles Kittridge

TRUE, Charles Kittridge (1809–1878)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...he had successive ministries in Tarrytown, New York City, and Fishkill until 1866 . He then went to New England for ministries in Massachusetts at Sheffield, Boston, Newton and Upper Falls, and Monson. Returning to New York in 1875 , he served at churches in Whitestone, Cold Spring, and Brooklyn. In 1875 he also taught as Professor of Logic and Practical Theology at Tabernacle College in Brooklyn. True died in Brooklyn on 19 June 1878 . Bibliography The Elements of Logic (Boston, 1840; 3rd edn 1860; 8th edn 1868). “ The Philosophy of Induction ,”...

Socialism, African

Socialism, African   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,313 words

...evolving from this matrix were to be free of any exploitation of “man by man” or domination by any particular entrepreneurial or propertied class. It followed that no foreign economic or political hegemony would be tolerated and that African countries should be nonaligned in the Cold War. Given the ideologically induced perception that African societies at independence, unlike nineteenth-century European societies, were economically undifferentiated, they would not need a vanguard party or a dictatorship of the proletariat. Rather, a single mass party, to which...

Colonialism

Colonialism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,110 words

...and their governments to come to terms with the socioeconomic and cultural as well as political legacies of European imperialism. These struggles have merged seamlessly with postindependence attempts to overcome marginalization, poverty, and political weakness in the Cold War, post–Cold War, and twenty-first-century international economic and political orders. Fundamentally, the obverse of colonial-era contradictions has been profound ambivalence amid profound changes in African economies, societies, and cultures. African peoples, civil societies, and...

Kenyatta, Jomo

Kenyatta, Jomo   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,482 words

...in Kenya. He promoted reconciliation by evoking the Swahili term Harambee , meaning “all pull together.” He offered the remaining Mau Mau freedom fighters several amnesties, praising them as patriots but doing very little for them in terms in providing land and jobs. During the Cold War, he proved to be staunchly pro-West. As president, Kenyatta clearly favored his family members and other Kikuyu supporters (collectively called “the royal family” by their detractors) in the distribution of business possibilities. He became the wealthiest man in Kenya. Although...

Monuments

Monuments   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,945 words

...in fact, tremendously complex. In the United States, the traditional codes of monumentality are enacted through the kitsch forms of commercial architecture in cities like Las Vegas, yet a surge of memorial building has gripped the capital. In the late 1980s and 1990s, the post–cold war dismantling of monuments throughout the Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe has been regarded as a kind of death of the monument. Images of these larger-than-life monuments pulled down by crowds, warehoused, and obsolete, have had profound symbolic value in signaling the end of...

Rassemblement Démocratique Africain

Rassemblement Démocratique Africain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,628 words

...equity within both federations. To promote such bold positions, some leaders joined the communist group at the Parliament, which led to a frank hostility from French authorities because of the Cold War environment and because of the end of the alliance of French center-left and socialist parties with the Communist Party in May 1947 . Around this time, violence and wars erupted in several territories, including Madagascar, northern Africa, and Cameroon. In the Ivory Coast, RDA leaders were imprisoned in February 1949 , prompting demonstrations on 28 January to...

DAVIES, Samuel

DAVIES, Samuel (1723–1761)   Reference library

John Fea

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to this one. During the French and Indian War, Davies used his pulpit eloquence in support of the British cause. He wrote several sermons between 1755 and 1762 championing British Protestant liberty against what he believed to be the threat of French Catholic tyranny. He encouraged Virginia dissenting Protestants to come to the defense of Great Britain since the Empire was the only government that would continue to preserve their religious freedom. Davies believed that God had ordained a British victory in the war with France. In his sermon Religion and...

Touré, Ahmed Sékou

Touré, Ahmed Sékou   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,482 words

...to Autocracy: Guinea under Sékou Touré.” In Decolonization and African Independence: The Transfers of Power, 1960–1980 , edited by Prosser Gifford and WilliamRoger Louis , pp. 225–244. New Haven, Conn., and London: Yale University Press, 1988. Schmidt, Elizabeth . Cold War and Decolonization in Guinea, 1946–1958 . Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2007. Touré, Ahmed Sékou . L’Afrique et la Révolution . Paris: Présence Africaine, 1967. Leland Conley...

Sartre, Jean-Paul

Sartre, Jean-Paul   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,532 words

...most of his life was the capital of the black Atlantic. A site of conflicting notions of black modernity, manners of “otherness,” and anticolonial and postcolonial discourses, black Paris only intensified Sartre’s engagement with issues such as decolonization, the effects of the Cold War on Third World nations, and immigration. It also fed Sartre’s appreciation of black aesthetic production, specifically jazz, which some critics can even “hear” in Sartre’s best-known novel, La Nausée (Gordon, p. 160). Jean-Paul Sartre was born in Paris in 1905 , to Anne-Marie...

THOREAU, Henry David

THOREAU, Henry David (1817–1862)   Reference library

David Davis

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...an escaped slave, who was arrested in Boston and remanded back into slavery according to the terms of the Fugitive Slave Act. Two years later, Thoreau met Walt WHITMAN , another anti-slavery poet and writer. Four years after that, in 1860 , Thoreau caught a cold while counting tree rings, and this cold eventually led to bronchitis and tuberculosis, which ran in the family. From May to July of 1861 , Thoreau took his final excursion to Minnesota with Horace Mann, Jr. Thoreau died in Concord, Massachusetts on 6 May 1862 at the age of forty-four....

skills, memory for

skills, memory for   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,148 words

...one possible interpretation is as follows. One source of forgetting is that of retroactive interference. A person learns to associate a particular stimulus with a particular response or action: for example, he learns that a bathroom tap with the letter C on it is likely to produce cold water if turned on. After a while such an association will become relatively automatic. If the situation then changes—for example, if he goes on holiday to Italy where C stands for caldo , ‘hot’—then he will probably make a number of mistakes before adjusting. On returning to...

Chinese ideas of the mind

Chinese ideas of the mind   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,144 words

...commonly held animistic modes of thinking—devils and spirits were thought to be able to possess the human body and soul and thus produce physical, behavioural, and social disorders. These supernatural factors were soon paralleled by the concept of natural factors such as cold, heat, wind, drought, and humidity affecting the human body in much the same way. Confucians, on the other hand, created a highly rational, though metaphysical, system of thought characterized by numerology and what may be termed ‘correlative’ thinking. Objects and phenomena in...

Brecht, Bertolt

Brecht, Bertolt (1898)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,304 words

...remain a complicated matter. Disagreements over what Brecht's statements mean and what his achievement was (if any) still mark the reception of his writing and production history. The initial reception was not smooth. In the West, in an intellectual environment colored by cold-war politics and a highly developed analysis of what a theory is, Brecht was frequently castigated for writing overheated and self-contradictory rhetoric in place of theory. It came to be almost a platitude that Brecht, who was acknowledged to be a pretty good theatrical director,...

Abstract Expressionism

Abstract Expressionism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,219 words

...serving the very mass formations it imagined it was inoculating itself against. Increasingly throughout the immediate postwar period, exhibitions of the “New American Painting” were sent overseas as vivid emissaries of democracy in the cultural cold war. The artists working in cultivated bohemian alienation during the war anticipated none of this, however. The interior world revealed by automatism was deeply private, and the artists resisted collective identity through their statements and through the very disjunctions of their jealously protected “signature...

Du Bois, W. E. B.

Du Bois, W. E. B.   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
3,096 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of human rights. After splitting permanently with the NAACP, Du Bois joined the Council on African Affairs, where he chaired the Africa Aid Committee and supported the early struggle of the African National Congress of South Africa against apartheid. With the advent of the Cold War, Du Bois’s political engagements remained on the political left. The U.S. government denied passports to Du Bois and his wife, Shirley Graham, between 1952 and 1958 . In 1957 , when the British Gold Coast colony became the independent nation of Ghana, Nkrumah became its...

Kahn, Louis Isadore

Kahn, Louis Isadore (1901)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,529 words
Illustration(s):
1

...using this giant bay system, setting cubic pavilions below its giant roof, carried on monumental structural columns. Manfredo Tafuri and Francesco Dal Co, in Modern Architecture describe these experiments at Yale as the origins of a new American “imperial” style in the cold-war years. Kenneth Frampton , in Modern Architecture: A Critical History , also notes the importance of Yale and its dean, Kahn's friend Howe, when this new monumental style emerged. Kahn played a crucial role in the definition of this new modular “imperial” aesthetic, but his...

View: