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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Simonov, Konstantin

Simonov, Konstantin (15 Nov. 1915)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
74 words

... [ Kirill Mikhailovich ] (b. Petrograd, Russia , 15 Nov. 1915 ; d. Moscow , 28 Aug. 1979 ) Novelist and playwright . He wrote plays based on his observations as a war correspondent, including Russkiye lyudi ( The Russian People , 1943 ) staged by Tyrone Guthrie at the Old Vic that year. His postwar play Russkiy vopros ( The Russian Question , 1947 ) anticipated the Cold War in both mood and theme. Nick Worrall Harold B. Segel , Twentieth-Century Russian Drama ...

Marcel, Gabriel

Marcel, Gabriel (7 Dec. 1889)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
65 words

.... His early Christian existentialist plays, written in the 1920s and 1930s, were staged much later, e.g. Un Homme de Dieu ( A Man of God , 1949 ) and Le Chemin de crête ( Ariadne , 1953 ). Rome n'est plus dans Rome (‘Rome is longer in Rome’, 1951 ) is about the Cold War. Wendy...

Dunham, Katherine

Dunham, Katherine (22 June 1909)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
172 words

...against segregated audiences in the United States during the 1940s, which she had suffered, and angered the US State Department when she refused to withdraw her 1952 ballet Southlands about a recent lynching incident from her company's programme in Paris at the height of the Cold War. Her controversial 1964 Aida for the Metropolitan Opera House showed the Egyptians as black Africans. She has written several books, including Dances of Haiti ( 1947 ) and Island Possessed ( 1994 ). Ramsay Burt See also choreography ; dance . V. Clark and B....

Sartre, Jean-Paul

Sartre, Jean-Paul (21 June 1905)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
569 words

... Nekrassov ( 1955 ; first play of the English Stage Company to go to the Edinburgh Festival ), contain much that is of interest beyond France. He also wrote some film scripts and a huge book on Genet . Ted Freeman Ted Freeman , Theatres of War: French Committed Theatre from the Second World War to the Cold War (1998) Robert Lorris , Sartre Dramaturge (1975) Dorothy McCall , The Theatre of Jean-Paul Sartre ...

stand-up comedy

stand-up comedy   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
583 words

...In the 1950s, the so-called ‘sick comics’ ( Lenny Bruce , Mort Sahl) who emerged from strip clubs and Beat venues rejected established joke formats in favour of more free-flowing, improvisational routines, influenced by jazz and laced with hipster slang, which encompassed the Cold War, segregation, sexual repression and illicit drug use. The importance of using original, self-written material was stressed, and in moving the emphasis from simple laughter-making to self-expression these comics paved the way for the likes of Richard Pryor , Robin Williams and...

cinema

cinema   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,505 words

...Union. A good many, though not all, German films carried an open Nazi message after Hitler's rise to power. During the Second World War, all the countries involved used the cinema as a stiffener of morale and a lever on neutral opinion. In the occupied countries, control of the cinema was a major aspect of policy. After the shooting war, the Cold War had unpleasant echoes in films made on either side of the East–West divide. The war left Hollywood still in possession of a dominant position: in 1946 it turned out more than 500 features. But the accelerating...

Brecht, Bertolt

Brecht, Bertolt (10 Feb. 1898)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,548 words

...but its success in Paris at the Théâtre des Nations in 1955 fed back into a warm domestic reception in both East and West Germany. In the latter it was made more palatable by playing down the politics and stressing its picturesqueness and poetry. In 1947 , during the Cold War witch-hunt, Brecht was summoned to appear before the House Committee on Un-American Activities. Warned by this, he quickly left the United States and returned to Europe, spending some time in Switzerland and then going to East Berlin in 1948 . Die Tage des Kommune ( The Days...

Ghana

Ghana   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
1,351 words

...criticisms of the government led to his imprisonment; he died in gaol during Nkrumah's regime. Efua Sutherland was close to the Nkrumah government, which encouraged and used the theatre to promote its agenda of ‘African socialism’ and its stance of non-alignment in the Cold War manoueuvres between East and West. Other dramatists, such as Ama Ata Aidoo , Asiedu Yirenkyi and Mohammed Ben-Abdallah , served as ministers at different times under Rawlings. The development of theatre follows the familiar pattern found in most of the colonial and...

German-language theatre

German-language theatre   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
5,443 words

...Zürich and performed subsequently at a great many West German theatres. The story of the Luftwaffe general who, though contemptuous of Nazism, serves the war effort until he is finally driven to suicide, gave a reassuring view of the ‘decent German’. Technically conventional, the play showed Zuckmayer's uncanny (for an exile) insight into the wartime atmosphere of Berlin. Later plays of his, such as The Cold Light ( 1956 ), The Life of Horace A. W. Tabor ( 1964 ) or The Pied Piper ( 1975 ), failed to make anything like the same impact. The voice of the...

television drama

television drama   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,456 words

...of personal malfunction; wider social perspectives are shunned. The very insertion of commercials into plays, regardless of the content of the latter, carries a ‘free enterprise’ and consumerist message. Only rarely does ideology rear its head openly, as in the case of ABC's Cold War serial Amerika ( 1987 ). The influence of television drama is not confined to the home market. A number of countries, like the United States, Britain, France and Brazil, export a great many programmes. The domination of the television screens of quite a few countries by...

architecture

architecture   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
7,523 words

...from the front of the stage. Early versions of the Künstlertheater type appeared with the Birmingham Repertory Theatre in 1913 (architect S. N. Cooke ) and the theatre at the Cologne Werkbund exhibition of 1914 by Van de Velde . Both had long, narrow auditoriums, somewhat cold and lecture theatre-like in atmosphere. At this time the influence of innovatory directors and stage designs began to exert particular influence, especially the scenic ideals of Adolphe Appia in Germany and his British follower Gordon Craig , who rejected conventional...

acting

acting   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,214 words

...theatre was so middle-class, so bloodlessly polite.’ The arrival of the seven-year-old Berliner Ensemble in London in 1956 , followed in 1958 by the 60-year-old Moscow Art Theatre's visit, were remarkable enough simply as cultural manifestations of a political ‘thaw’ in the Cold War, with all the curiosity value of a privileged peep behind the impenetrable Iron Curtain. But if we thought Miller's achievement in creating a tragedy portraying the working-class life of New York's longshoremen and their women, which opened out effortlessly from vivid workaday...

Henry V

Henry V   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...approach (such as Alan Howard in Terry Hands ’s important Stratford production of 1975 ), some reacting strongly against it (such as Michael Pennington , playing Henry as a cold cynic in Michael Bogdanov ’s production of 1985–6 ), and some attempting to do both, notably Kenneth Branagh , who first played the role in Adrian Noble ’s ambivalently post-Falklands War production for the RSC in 1984 . Michael Dobson On the screen: The two outstanding Henry V films were made by Laurence Olivier ( 1944 ) and Kenneth Branagh ( 1989 ) who, like Olivier...

Henry IV Part 1

Henry IV Part 1   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,574 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...RSC in 1964 , with Ian Holm as Harry, part of an ambitious presentation of the Second Tetralogy which staged it as a prelude to the First, famously condensed into the three-part The Wars of the Roses . This immense undertaking was repeated, in a very different manner, by Michael Bogdanov ’s English Shakespeare Company in 1985–6 , with Michael Pennington as a cold Harry and John Woodvine as a memorably cynical Sir John. Other notable Hal-Falstaff pairings in more recent times include William Houston and Desmond Barrit (RSC, 2000 ); Matthew...

Venus and Adonis

Venus and Adonis   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
1,978 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...She pulls him down on top of her, but to no avail (ll. 541–612). Venus warns Adonis against the perils of boar-hunting, urging him instead to hunt only hares, foxes, or deer (ll. 613–713). Venus renews her pleading for love, explaining that the night is dark to reproach Adonis’ coldness and encourage prodigality (ll. 715–68). Adonis refuses Venus, accusing her of miscalling lust by the name of love, and at last makes his escape (ll. 769–816). Alone, Venus wanders lost in the dark: noticing how her moans echo, she spends the night extemporizing an echoing song...

Henry IV Part 2

Henry IV Part 2   Reference library

Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,727 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in terror: Sir John hands him over to Prince John, who arrives with Westmorland and soldiers pursuing fleeing rebels, and Coleville is sent to York to be executed. The nobles set off for London, where the King’s sickness has worsened. Sir John reflects that Prince John’s cold nature is the result of insufficient drinking, a fault from which Harry is free, and speaks eloquently of the beneficial effects of consuming sherry-sack. 4.3 On his sickbed, the King speaks of Prince Harry and his anxiety about the chaos that may befall his kingdom when he...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...unprecedentedly free in versification—defies its onstage drama, with key events (including most of Antony and Cleopatra’s time together, and the decisive battle of Actium) evoked in language rather than shown on stage. The lovers’ glamorous past seems as significant as the coldly rational present (personified by the efficient Octavius Caesar) in which they are being defeated: during the last act Cleopatra’s poetic invocation of a heroic Antony seeks to upstage and eclipse the flawed failure whom the action of the play has in fact shown. In so far as she...

All’s Well That Ends Well

All’s Well That Ends Well   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,814 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...status. Returning from his enforced wedding, Bertram tells Paroles he means to send Helen back to Roussillon without consummating the marriage and run away to the wars. 2.4 Paroles tells a grieved but compliant Helen that Bertram must depart at once on unspecified business and wishes her to return home. 2.5 Lafeu warns Bertram, in vain, against placing any faith in Paroles. Bertram takes a cold farewell from Helen, before he and Paroles leave for Italy. 3.1 The Lords Dumaine are welcomed to the battlefront by the Duke of Florence. 3.2 The Countess, delighted...

Othello

Othello   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,092 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...commands Iago to kill Cassio and means to kill Desdemona himself. 3.4 Desdemona sends the clown to fetch Cassio. She is troubled about the loss of the handkerchief, which Emilia denies having seen. Othello arrives, and Desdemona tells him she has summoned Cassio: he feigns a cold and asks for the handkerchief. When she says she has lost it he tells her it was magically charmed to ensure the continuance of mutual love, given to his mother by a sorceress, and that its loss is ominous: as his questioning about it grows more urgent, she attempts to change the...

Soldier's Play, A

Soldier's Play, A (1981)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Theatre (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
223 words

...the black officer Capt. Richard Davenport ( Charles Brown ) is sent to investigate. In a series of interviews and flashbacks we see the vicious Waters raving against whites and, even more strongly, against “lazy, shiftless Negroes.” It turns out that Waters was murdered in cold blood by the cool renegade Melvin Peterson ( Denzel Washington ), hoping that the whites would be blamed. The whole incident is brushed aside by the chief of staff as “the usual, common violence any commander faces in Negro military units.” The Negro Ensemble Company production,...

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