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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Goslar, Lotte

Goslar, Lotte (27 February 1906)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
496 words

...repertory constantly evolved over the years, but certain of Goslar's leitmotif solos remained by audience demand. Among these were Life of a Flower , with Goslar as the flower lifting her wide, trusting countenance to the heavens only to be inundated by rain and defeated by a cold. In Grandma Always Danced Goslar tenderly and mischievously evoked the life cycle of a woman who dances from cradle to grave—and beyond. Liebestraum showed her as an endearing old nanny fussing over her former charge as he tries to concertize. Although Goslar was inevitably...

Drigo, Riccardo

Drigo, Riccardo (30 June 1846)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
1,138 words

...accompaniment, that has become a popular piece. The outbreak of World War I interrupted Drigo's return to Russia after his 1914 summer in Italy; against the advice of friends he did return in 1916 , braving the perils of German submarines while crossing the Baltic. Despite his connections with nobility, the people received him with ovations and affection; during the 1917 Russian Revolution he resumed his career in Saint Petersburg under the hardships of rationed food and cold winters with little heat. Two fur coats and a box containing most of his...

Maryinsky Ballet

Maryinsky Ballet   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
6,087 words

...the spectacle, and in several productions, such as The Flames of Paris , appeared as the basis of the dance score. In the years of World War II, the main part of the company was evacuated to Perm, where they performed works from the repertory and created new ones, such as Anisimova's Gayané ( 1942 ). Rallied by the ballerina Olga Jordan the artists who were left in blockaded Leningrad—in spite of hunger, cold, and artillery fire—continued to give concerts. They went to the front and performed in factories and hospitals. In the 1940s young artists in...

Nureyev, Rudolf

Nureyev, Rudolf (17 March 1938)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
3,093 words

...were alerted to the situation and placed themselves a few feet away. Nureyev found an opportunity to run to them and ask for the protection of the French government, which was instantly granted. It was the first political defection by a Soviet artist and a defining moment in the Cold War. Within a week of Nureyev's defection he was dancing again in Paris with the Grand Ballet du Marquis de Cuevas, alternating as Prince Florimund and the Bluebird in The Sleeping Beauty . Nureyev made his American debut in Chicago in October 1961 as a guest artist with the...

Kirstein, Lincoln

Kirstein, Lincoln (4 May 1907)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
3,811 words

...a highly praised monograph on Henry James . Kirstein as contributor (mostly of reviews of poetry) wrote only three articles on dance, one of which, however, was a major essay called “The Diaghilev Period.” It contained a prophetic description of “the classical dance … [with] its cold multiplication of a thousand embroideries … divested of the personal.” Without having met him, Kirstein thus revealed an intuitive affinity with the work of Balanchine. In 1928 , with classmates John Walker III (later director of the National Gallery in Washington, D.C.) and ...

Fuller, Loie

Fuller, Loie (22 January 1862)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
4,329 words

...silks in billowing motion; when they emerged, they were caught in fantastic landscapes in which the essential metaphor was the fusion of art and technology. World War I brought a temporary halt to Fuller's choreographic experiments. Although the company appeared in California in 1915 and in London in 1915 and 1916 , it performed old repertory pieces and then disbanded for the duration of the war. Fuller became a tireless relief worker, raising hundreds of thousands of dollars for Belgium and Romania. In the United States, with Alma Spreckles , wife of...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
16,502 words

...development of this school, partly by the removal of people legislated as “undesirable elements.” The school and the dance library created by Böhme were destroyed during the war, although the library was reestablished in 1950 . The resulting vacuum, and certain divisions between ballet and modern dance, dance and training, and dance and the state, as well as a postwar era of Cold War conflict, hindered the creation of a national ballet school and a national ballet. The concept of a comprehensive dance education changed dramatically at four junctures: (1) in...

Paris Opera Ballet

Paris Opera Ballet   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
7,982 words

...heroic and mythological ballets celebrating the cult of antiquity— Télémaque, Bacchus et Ariane , and Le Jugement de Pâris . Marie Miller, whom he married, danced the leading role in Psyché , which became one of the most frequently seen ballets, with a total of 564 performances. Cold but energetic and devoted solely to the company, Gardel contrived to gain the goodwill of successive political regimes and kept his post as director, although he was occasionally obliged to participate in Revolutionary festivities. A courteous but inflexible teacher, he imposed an...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

Galina V. Inozemtseva, and Elena G. Fedorenko

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
28,293 words

...peasantry and serfs and the minority nations continued. A radical reaction occurred while the military was engaged in World War I—the Russian (October) Revolution of 1917 . It brought the Bolsheviks to power and created the first Communist state, named in 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union or USSR). After World War II, the Soviet Union was considered a world power. It engaged the Western powers in the Cold War until 1991 , when the Soviet leader was deposed, and it soon divided into independent republics. Russia is the largest of...

Native American Dance

Native American Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
16,648 words

...Dance of the southwestern Pueblos is an example of relatively recent borrowing from the Great Plains; it involves poking fun at the Pueblo people's former enemy, who rode into the settlements and raided. In double file, the men bounce back and forth wearing Plains war bonnets and using a Plains war-dance hop. The women shuffle demurely in place with a gentle Pueblo step. Other borrowing may be from popular social dances, such as the twist, which may also be incorporated into traditional dances—often for satiric purposes. A dance that became widely popular in...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
45,715 words

...form that attracted a large and popular audience. [See the entry on de Mille .] American theatrical dance continued to attract large audiences after World War II, when ethnic, folk, and social genres began to support intellectual, social, and aesthetic diversity. Developments in national cultural life again guided the dance's multifarious directions. Foreign policy debates, the escalating Cold War between the USSR and the United States, loyalty checks and other ramifications of McCarthyism, economic and political reconstructions abroad, and the post—New...

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