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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Simonov, Konstantin

Simonov, Konstantin (15 Nov. 1915)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
74 words

... [ Kirill Mikhailovich ] (b. Petrograd, Russia , 15 Nov. 1915 ; d. Moscow , 28 Aug. 1979 ) Novelist and playwright . He wrote plays based on his observations as a war correspondent, including Russkiye lyudi ( The Russian People , 1943 ) staged by Tyrone Guthrie at the Old Vic that year. His postwar play Russkiy vopros ( The Russian Question , 1947 ) anticipated the Cold War in both mood and theme. Nick Worrall Harold B. Segel , Twentieth-Century Russian Drama ...

Marcel, Gabriel

Marcel, Gabriel (7 Dec. 1889)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
65 words

.... His early Christian existentialist plays, written in the 1920s and 1930s, were staged much later, e.g. Un Homme de Dieu ( A Man of God , 1949 ) and Le Chemin de crête ( Ariadne , 1953 ). Rome n'est plus dans Rome (‘Rome is longer in Rome’, 1951 ) is about the Cold War. Wendy...

Dunham, Katherine

Dunham, Katherine (22 June 1909)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
172 words

...against segregated audiences in the United States during the 1940s, which she had suffered, and angered the US State Department when she refused to withdraw her 1952 ballet Southlands about a recent lynching incident from her company's programme in Paris at the height of the Cold War. Her controversial 1964 Aida for the Metropolitan Opera House showed the Egyptians as black Africans. She has written several books, including Dances of Haiti ( 1947 ) and Island Possessed ( 1994 ). Ramsay Burt See also choreography ; dance . V. Clark and B....

Sartre, Jean-Paul

Sartre, Jean-Paul (21 June 1905)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
569 words

... Nekrassov ( 1955 ; first play of the English Stage Company to go to the Edinburgh Festival ), contain much that is of interest beyond France. He also wrote some film scripts and a huge book on Genet . Ted Freeman Ted Freeman , Theatres of War: French Committed Theatre from the Second World War to the Cold War (1998) Robert Lorris , Sartre Dramaturge (1975) Dorothy McCall , The Theatre of Jean-Paul Sartre ...

Goslar, Lotte

Goslar, Lotte (27 February 1906)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
496 words

...repertory constantly evolved over the years, but certain of Goslar's leitmotif solos remained by audience demand. Among these were Life of a Flower , with Goslar as the flower lifting her wide, trusting countenance to the heavens only to be inundated by rain and defeated by a cold. In Grandma Always Danced Goslar tenderly and mischievously evoked the life cycle of a woman who dances from cradle to grave—and beyond. Liebestraum showed her as an endearing old nanny fussing over her former charge as he tries to concertize. Although Goslar was inevitably...

Amore dei tre re, L’

Amore dei tre re, L’   Quick reference

The Grove Book of Operas (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
997 words

...The ostinato figures have an essential function. In some cases they have a precise meaning, such as the swift dactylic rhythm associated with barbarity, war and invasion; elsewhere they combine to form groups of suspended sonorities. The orchestration itself strongly underlines the meaning of the words and actions: a good example is provided by the sustained chords of pairs of woodwind linked to the cold courtesy with which Fiora addresses her husband. Donald Grout described the work as ‘without doubt the greatest Italian tragic opera since Verdi's ...

stand-up comedy

stand-up comedy   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
583 words

...In the 1950s, the so-called ‘sick comics’ ( Lenny Bruce , Mort Sahl) who emerged from strip clubs and Beat venues rejected established joke formats in favour of more free-flowing, improvisational routines, influenced by jazz and laced with hipster slang, which encompassed the Cold War, segregation, sexual repression and illicit drug use. The importance of using original, self-written material was stressed, and in moving the emphasis from simple laughter-making to self-expression these comics paved the way for the likes of Richard Pryor , Robin Williams and...

cinema

cinema   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,505 words

...Union. A good many, though not all, German films carried an open Nazi message after Hitler's rise to power. During the Second World War, all the countries involved used the cinema as a stiffener of morale and a lever on neutral opinion. In the occupied countries, control of the cinema was a major aspect of policy. After the shooting war, the Cold War had unpleasant echoes in films made on either side of the East–West divide. The war left Hollywood still in possession of a dominant position: in 1946 it turned out more than 500 features. But the accelerating...

Drigo, Riccardo

Drigo, Riccardo (30 June 1846)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
1,138 words

...accompaniment, that has become a popular piece. The outbreak of World War I interrupted Drigo's return to Russia after his 1914 summer in Italy; against the advice of friends he did return in 1916 , braving the perils of German submarines while crossing the Baltic. Despite his connections with nobility, the people received him with ovations and affection; during the 1917 Russian Revolution he resumed his career in Saint Petersburg under the hardships of rationed food and cold winters with little heat. Two fur coats and a box containing most of his...

Brecht, Bertolt

Brecht, Bertolt (10 Feb. 1898)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,548 words

...but its success in Paris at the Théâtre des Nations in 1955 fed back into a warm domestic reception in both East and West Germany. In the latter it was made more palatable by playing down the politics and stressing its picturesqueness and poetry. In 1947 , during the Cold War witch-hunt, Brecht was summoned to appear before the House Committee on Un-American Activities. Warned by this, he quickly left the United States and returned to Europe, spending some time in Switzerland and then going to East Berlin in 1948 . Die Tage des Kommune ( The Days...

Tabarro, IL

Tabarro, IL   Quick reference

The Grove Book of Operas (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
1,488 words

...motion of the Seine theme as Michele returns, and in the course of a long scène à deux permeated by a new warmth, melodic and harmonic, he tries to reawaken his wife's affection for him. He recalls the child, now dead, whose cradle they used to tend, and how when the nights were cold he used to enfold them in his cloak ( tabarro ) – and here a faintly sinister motif is heard. He asks Giorgetta why she now seems never to sleep at night and she replies that the air of the cabin suffocates her; she must go on deck to breathe. For the last time Michele begs her to...

Ghana

Ghana   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
1,351 words

...criticisms of the government led to his imprisonment; he died in gaol during Nkrumah's regime. Efua Sutherland was close to the Nkrumah government, which encouraged and used the theatre to promote its agenda of ‘African socialism’ and its stance of non-alignment in the Cold War manoueuvres between East and West. Other dramatists, such as Ama Ata Aidoo , Asiedu Yirenkyi and Mohammed Ben-Abdallah , served as ministers at different times under Rawlings. The development of theatre follows the familiar pattern found in most of the colonial and...

German-language theatre

German-language theatre   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
5,443 words

...Zürich and performed subsequently at a great many West German theatres. The story of the Luftwaffe general who, though contemptuous of Nazism, serves the war effort until he is finally driven to suicide, gave a reassuring view of the ‘decent German’. Technically conventional, the play showed Zuckmayer's uncanny (for an exile) insight into the wartime atmosphere of Berlin. Later plays of his, such as The Cold Light ( 1956 ), The Life of Horace A. W. Tabor ( 1964 ) or The Pied Piper ( 1975 ), failed to make anything like the same impact. The voice of the...

Midsummer Marriage, The

Midsummer Marriage, The   Quick reference

The Grove Book of Operas (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
2,455 words
Illustration(s):
1

...stage in the journey towards his operatic vision was his war‐time oratorio A Child of our Time ( 1939–41 ), for which, acting on the advice of T. S. Eliot , he wrote his own text. With this achievement as a foundation he embarked on the creation of an operatic scenario, again taking inspiration from Eliot (among many other sources). This began as a vision in his mind's eye: I saw a stage picture … of a wooded hilltop with a temple, where a warm and soft young man was being rebuffed by a cold and hard young woman … to such a degree that the collective,...

Maryinsky Ballet

Maryinsky Ballet   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
6,087 words

...the spectacle, and in several productions, such as The Flames of Paris , appeared as the basis of the dance score. In the years of World War II, the main part of the company was evacuated to Perm, where they performed works from the repertory and created new ones, such as Anisimova's Gayané ( 1942 ). Rallied by the ballerina Olga Jordan the artists who were left in blockaded Leningrad—in spite of hunger, cold, and artillery fire—continued to give concerts. They went to the front and performed in factories and hospitals. In the 1940s young artists in...

television drama

television drama   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,456 words

...of personal malfunction; wider social perspectives are shunned. The very insertion of commercials into plays, regardless of the content of the latter, carries a ‘free enterprise’ and consumerist message. Only rarely does ideology rear its head openly, as in the case of ABC's Cold War serial Amerika ( 1987 ). The influence of television drama is not confined to the home market. A number of countries, like the United States, Britain, France and Brazil, export a great many programmes. The domination of the television screens of quite a few countries by...

architecture

architecture   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
7,523 words

...from the front of the stage. Early versions of the Künstlertheater type appeared with the Birmingham Repertory Theatre in 1913 (architect S. N. Cooke ) and the theatre at the Cologne Werkbund exhibition of 1914 by Van de Velde . Both had long, narrow auditoriums, somewhat cold and lecture theatre-like in atmosphere. At this time the influence of innovatory directors and stage designs began to exert particular influence, especially the scenic ideals of Adolphe Appia in Germany and his British follower Gordon Craig , who rejected conventional...

Clemenza di Tito, La

Clemenza di Tito, La   Quick reference

The Grove Book of Operas (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
2,644 words

...The ensemble freezes in the Allegro, Sextus's angular line again dominating while the others comment on his evident terror. Titus reduces Sextus to tears of contrition by addressing him kindly. But Sextus, protecting Vitellia, cannot justify his treachery. Titus dismisses him coldly. Gathering his feelings into a nobly arching melody, Sextus asks Titus to remember their earlier friendship (rondò, ‘Deh, per questo istante solo’). In the Allegro the boundaries of the tonic (A major) are twice burst by cries of despair; its gentler principal melody (‘Tanto...

Frau ohne Schatten, Die

Frau ohne Schatten, Die   Quick reference

The Grove Book of Operas (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
2,337 words
Illustration(s):
1

...no shadow’, because her immature huntsman‐Emperor does nothing but self‐absorbedly pursue his game. The librettist chose to give them no scene together until Act 3, when the Emperor is already freezing into stone. Understandably, the composer complained that he found this pair cold and uninspiring. The other childless couple were another matter: the librettist had confessed at the start that he was imagining the Dyer's Wife after Strauss's own formidable Pauline, and Strauss could comfortably identify himself with the decent, much‐put‐upon Barak. At almost no...

Nureyev, Rudolf

Nureyev, Rudolf (17 March 1938)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
3,093 words

...were alerted to the situation and placed themselves a few feet away. Nureyev found an opportunity to run to them and ask for the protection of the French government, which was instantly granted. It was the first political defection by a Soviet artist and a defining moment in the Cold War. Within a week of Nureyev's defection he was dancing again in Paris with the Grand Ballet du Marquis de Cuevas, alternating as Prince Florimund and the Bluebird in The Sleeping Beauty . Nureyev made his American debut in Chicago in October 1961 as a guest artist with the...

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