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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Cold War, the

Cold War, the   Reference library

Emily Abrams Ansari

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,530 words

... War, the . The Cold War was a political, ideological, and military conflict between Communist and Western nations that began around 1947 and ended with the dissolution of the USSR in 1991 . The USSR and the United States were the principal adversaries, both superpowers after World War II. Each funded many proxy wars during this period, but because of their nuclear capabilities never fought each other directly, thereby creating alternating periods of high tension and relative calm. The Cold War's only consistent feature was thus the ideological conflict...

Cold War Kids

Cold War Kids   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Popular Music (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Music
Length:
201 words

... War Kids This US indie rock band was formed in Fullerton, California, in 2004 by Matt Aviero (drums), Matt Maust (bass), Johnnie Russell (guitar) and Nathan Willett (vocals). A series of eye-catching live shows helped the quartet build up a cult following on the Californian rock circuit, and a well-received demo led to a recording contract with the independent Monarchy Music label. The quartet’s debut EP, Mulberry Street , recorded in April 2005, was snapped up as the band’s reputation began to spread by word of mouth, mainly through their active Internet...

Cold War Kids

Cold War Kids  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Music
This US indie rock band was formed in Fullerton, California, in 2004 by Matt Aviero (drums), Matt Maust (bass), Johnnie Russell (guitar) and Nathan Willett (vocals). A series of eye-catching ...
Goslar, Lotte

Goslar, Lotte (27 February 1906)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
496 words

...repertory constantly evolved over the years, but certain of Goslar's leitmotif solos remained by audience demand. Among these were Life of a Flower , with Goslar as the flower lifting her wide, trusting countenance to the heavens only to be inundated by rain and defeated by a cold. In Grandma Always Danced Goslar tenderly and mischievously evoked the life cycle of a woman who dances from cradle to grave—and beyond. Liebestraum showed her as an endearing old nanny fussing over her former charge as he tries to concertize. Although Goslar was inevitably...

National Endowment for the Arts

National Endowment for the Arts   Reference library

Michael Mauskapf

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
534 words

... (New York, 1979) F. Taylor and A.L. Barresi : The Arts at a New Frontier: the National Endowment for the Arts (New York, 1984) R. Bolton , ed.: Culture Wars: Documents from the Recent Controversies in the Arts (New York, 1992) J.W. Ziegler : Arts in Crisis: the National Endowment for the Arts versus America (Pennington, NJ, 1994) D.M. Binkiewicz : Painting, Politics, and Cold War Culture: United States Arts Policy and the Formation of the National Endowment for the Arts, 1960–1975 (diss., UCLA, 1997) D.A. Smith : Covered Wagons of Culture:...

Amore dei tre re, L’

Amore dei tre re, L’   Quick reference

The Grove Book of Operas (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
997 words

...The ostinato figures have an essential function. In some cases they have a precise meaning, such as the swift dactylic rhythm associated with barbarity, war and invasion; elsewhere they combine to form groups of suspended sonorities. The orchestration itself strongly underlines the meaning of the words and actions: a good example is provided by the sustained chords of pairs of woodwind linked to the cold courtesy with which Fiora addresses her husband. Donald Grout described the work as ‘without doubt the greatest Italian tragic opera since Verdi's ...

Scarpia

Scarpia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Opera Characters (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
684 words

...Second World War, the notionally Napoleonic setting of Tosca seems to me thin and unconvincing by comparison with the one which Rossellini projected in his painfully unwatchable film Rome Open City . The narrative parallels are sufficiently close to allow an almost frictionless transposition and the character of Scarpia undergoes an intriguing metamorphosis, without dishonouring or deforming the words and music which were written for him. He emerges as someone disconcertingly ‘ordinary’, sorting and signing papers, absent‐mindedly sipping cold coffee,...

Drigo, Riccardo

Drigo, Riccardo (30 June 1846)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
1,138 words

...accompaniment, that has become a popular piece. The outbreak of World War I interrupted Drigo's return to Russia after his 1914 summer in Italy; against the advice of friends he did return in 1916 , braving the perils of German submarines while crossing the Baltic. Despite his connections with nobility, the people received him with ovations and affection; during the 1917 Russian Revolution he resumed his career in Saint Petersburg under the hardships of rationed food and cold winters with little heat. Two fur coats and a box containing most of his...

Tabarro, IL

Tabarro, IL   Quick reference

The Grove Book of Operas (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
1,488 words

...motion of the Seine theme as Michele returns, and in the course of a long scène à deux permeated by a new warmth, melodic and harmonic, he tries to reawaken his wife's affection for him. He recalls the child, now dead, whose cradle they used to tend, and how when the nights were cold he used to enfold them in his cloak ( tabarro ) – and here a faintly sinister motif is heard. He asks Giorgetta why she now seems never to sleep at night and she replies that the air of the cabin suffocates her; she must go on deck to breathe. For the last time Michele begs her to...

Midsummer Marriage, The

Midsummer Marriage, The   Quick reference

The Grove Book of Operas (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
2,455 words
Illustration(s):
1

...stage in the journey towards his operatic vision was his war‐time oratorio A Child of our Time ( 1939–41 ), for which, acting on the advice of T. S. Eliot , he wrote his own text. With this achievement as a foundation he embarked on the creation of an operatic scenario, again taking inspiration from Eliot (among many other sources). This began as a vision in his mind's eye: I saw a stage picture … of a wooded hilltop with a temple, where a warm and soft young man was being rebuffed by a cold and hard young woman … to such a degree that the collective,...

Maryinsky Ballet

Maryinsky Ballet   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
6,087 words

...the spectacle, and in several productions, such as The Flames of Paris , appeared as the basis of the dance score. In the years of World War II, the main part of the company was evacuated to Perm, where they performed works from the repertory and created new ones, such as Anisimova's Gayané ( 1942 ). Rallied by the ballerina Olga Jordan the artists who were left in blockaded Leningrad—in spite of hunger, cold, and artillery fire—continued to give concerts. They went to the front and performed in factories and hospitals. In the 1940s young artists in...

Clemenza di Tito, La

Clemenza di Tito, La   Quick reference

The Grove Book of Operas (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
2,644 words

...The ensemble freezes in the Allegro, Sextus's angular line again dominating while the others comment on his evident terror. Titus reduces Sextus to tears of contrition by addressing him kindly. But Sextus, protecting Vitellia, cannot justify his treachery. Titus dismisses him coldly. Gathering his feelings into a nobly arching melody, Sextus asks Titus to remember their earlier friendship (rondò, ‘Deh, per questo istante solo’). In the Allegro the boundaries of the tonic (A major) are twice burst by cries of despair; its gentler principal melody (‘Tanto...

Frau ohne Schatten, Die

Frau ohne Schatten, Die   Quick reference

The Grove Book of Operas (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
2,337 words
Illustration(s):
1

...no shadow’, because her immature huntsman‐Emperor does nothing but self‐absorbedly pursue his game. The librettist chose to give them no scene together until Act 3, when the Emperor is already freezing into stone. Understandably, the composer complained that he found this pair cold and uninspiring. The other childless couple were another matter: the librettist had confessed at the start that he was imagining the Dyer's Wife after Strauss's own formidable Pauline, and Strauss could comfortably identify himself with the decent, much‐put‐upon Barak. At almost no...

Musicology

Musicology   Reference library

H. Wiley Hitchcock and James Deaville

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,137 words

...work into the 21st century continued its extension into new areas of inquiry, applying increasingly diverse methodologies to traditional as well as new research fields. Music and politics, as particularly motivated by musicological research into the Third Reich and the Cold War, became one of the key sub-disciplines in the new century, as did music and media in all of its manifestations (film, radio, television, the Internet, and video/computer games). In the wake of this expansion, a sub-field emerged that incorporates scientific methodology within...

Nureyev, Rudolf

Nureyev, Rudolf (17 March 1938)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
3,093 words

...were alerted to the situation and placed themselves a few feet away. Nureyev found an opportunity to run to them and ask for the protection of the French government, which was instantly granted. It was the first political defection by a Soviet artist and a defining moment in the Cold War. Within a week of Nureyev's defection he was dancing again in Paris with the Grand Ballet du Marquis de Cuevas, alternating as Prince Florimund and the Bluebird in The Sleeping Beauty . Nureyev made his American debut in Chicago in October 1961 as a guest artist with the...

Kirstein, Lincoln

Kirstein, Lincoln (4 May 1907)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
3,811 words

...a highly praised monograph on Henry James . Kirstein as contributor (mostly of reviews of poetry) wrote only three articles on dance, one of which, however, was a major essay called “The Diaghilev Period.” It contained a prophetic description of “the classical dance … [with] its cold multiplication of a thousand embroideries … divested of the personal.” Without having met him, Kirstein thus revealed an intuitive affinity with the work of Balanchine. In 1928 , with classmates John Walker III (later director of the National Gallery in Washington, D.C.) and ...

Peter Grimes

Peter Grimes   Quick reference

The Grove Book of Operas (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
3,319 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in speech, not song – tells him in as many words to take his own life. This, after Grimes's movingly restrained recapitulation of ‘What harbour shelters peace?’, accompanied only by distant choral reiterations of Grimes's name, may seem a harsh effect, and a harsh judgment: but as cold reality, both are appropriate. The ‘dawn’ music returns, the orchestra heard for the first time since Act 3 scene i, and there are three further stanzas of the choral song that began Act 1; the only remarks of the various subsidiary characters who assemble are that a boat, seen...

Fuller, Loie

Fuller, Loie (22 January 1862)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
4,329 words

...silks in billowing motion; when they emerged, they were caught in fantastic landscapes in which the essential metaphor was the fusion of art and technology. World War I brought a temporary halt to Fuller's choreographic experiments. Although the company appeared in California in 1915 and in London in 1915 and 1916 , it performed old repertory pieces and then disbanded for the duration of the war. Fuller became a tireless relief worker, raising hundreds of thousands of dollars for Belgium and Romania. In the United States, with Alma Spreckles , wife of...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
16,502 words

...development of this school, partly by the removal of people legislated as “undesirable elements.” The school and the dance library created by Böhme were destroyed during the war, although the library was reestablished in 1950 . The resulting vacuum, and certain divisions between ballet and modern dance, dance and training, and dance and the state, as well as a postwar era of Cold War conflict, hindered the creation of a national ballet school and a national ballet. The concept of a comprehensive dance education changed dramatically at four junctures: (1) in...

Paris Opera Ballet

Paris Opera Ballet   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
7,982 words

...heroic and mythological ballets celebrating the cult of antiquity— Télémaque, Bacchus et Ariane , and Le Jugement de Pâris . Marie Miller, whom he married, danced the leading role in Psyché , which became one of the most frequently seen ballets, with a total of 564 performances. Cold but energetic and devoted solely to the company, Gardel contrived to gain the goodwill of successive political regimes and kept his post as director, although he was occasionally obliged to participate in Revolutionary festivities. A courteous but inflexible teacher, he imposed an...

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