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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission: Let us not be deceived – we are today in the midst of a cold war. The phrase is said to have been suggested to him by Herbert B. Swope , former editor of the New York World . By 1948 , as the international situation grew more tense, Baruch was telling a Senate committee: We are in the midst of a cold war which is getting warmer. See also Cold War Warrior ; Détente ; Eisenhower Doctrine ; End of History ; Hawks and doves ; McCarthyism ; Nato ; New World Order ; Peaceful coexistence ; Reagan...

Cold War Warrior

Cold War Warrior   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

... War Warrior or Cold Warrior . A term for a US politician or other prominent person who took a hawkish stance ( see Hawks and doves ) in the Cold War . The term first arose in the late 1950s. Notable Cold War Warriors have included Edward Teller , ‘the Father of the H-bomb’ (and the partial inspiration of Dr Strangelove ), General Curtis ‘Bombs Away’ LeMay ( see Bomb them back into the Stone Age ), General Douglas MacArthur (the American Caesar ), Ronald Reagan (the Great Communicator ; see also Evil Empire ) and Margaret Thatcher (the ...

Popper, Karl

Popper, Karl (1902–94)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...in New Zealand), published, which in light of its later fame is perhaps hard to imagine. However, it was not until the Cold War began in earnest in the early 1950s that its message began to resonate. Open Society and its Enemies applies Popper's critique of inductive reasoning to political philosophy, to attack ‘historicism’ in the political philosophy of Plato, Marx, and Hegel , for which he blames most of what took place during World War II. But as Perry Anderson has pointed out in English Questions ( 1992 ), Popper's attack is based on the rather...

Popper, Karl

Popper, Karl (1902–94)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in New Zealand), published, which in light of its later fame is perhaps hard to imagine. However, it was not until the Cold War began in earnest in the early 1950s that its message began to resonate. Open Society and its Enemies applies Popper’s critique of inductive reasoning to political philosophy, to attack ‘historicism’ in the political philosophy of Plato, Marx, and Hegel , for which he blames most of what took place during World War II. But as Perry Anderson has pointed out in English Questions ( 1992 ), Popper’s attack is based on the rather...

Austin, John Langshaw

Austin, John Langshaw (1911–60)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...( 1911–60 ) British philosopher of language, best known as the originator of speech act theory and the concept of the performative . Born in Lancaster, but raised in St Andrews in Scotland, Austin was educated at Balliol College, Oxford. During World War II he served with MI6. After the war he was appointed to a professorship at Oxford. Austin was very far from prolific; he published only seven papers in his lifetime. His most influential work, How to Do Things with Words: The William James Lectures delivered at Harvard University in 1955 ( 1962...

Third World

Third World   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...the politically non-aligned countries (i.e. countries that had not taken a side in the Cold War) to the Third Estate (i.e. peasants and commoners) in France during the Revolution. His point was that like the peasants, the people of the Third World had very little material wealth, but had begun to assert their right to and desire for a better share of global resources. This became manifest as the process of decolonization began in earnest following the end of World War II. At the Bandung conference in 1955 , at which the leaders of countries from Africa and...

Austin, John Langshaw

Austin, John Langshaw (1911–60)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... ( 1911–60 ) British philosopher of language , best known as the originator of speech act theory and the concept of the performative . Born in Lancaster, but raised in St Andrews in Scotland, Austin was educated at Balliol College, Oxford. During World War II he served with MI6. After the war he was appointed to a professorship at Oxford. Austin was very far from prolific; he published only seven papers in his lifetime. His most influential work, How to Do Things with Words: The William James Lectures delivered at Harvard University in 1955 ( 1962...

Third World

Third World   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...the politically non-aligned countries (i.e. countries that had not taken a side in the Cold War) to the Third Estate (i.e. peasants and commoners) in France during the Revolution. His point was that like the peasants, the people of the Third World had very little material wealth, but had begun to assert their right to and desire for a better share of global resources. This became manifest as the process of decolonization began in earnest following the end of World War II. At the Bandung conference in 1955 , at which the leaders of countries from Africa and...

readerly and writerly

readerly and writerly   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...the reader no such clarity of attribution. It is, therefore, a more plural text in Barthes 's view, implying that it gives the reader greater freedom to construct meanings for themselves. As Fredric Jameson argues in The Modernist Papers ( 2007 ), there is an undisclosed ‘cold war’ ideology and politics behind this concept which wants to equate the readerly text with so-called ‘closed’ or totalitarian societies and the writerly text with ‘open’ or democratic societies (the terms open and closed are adapted from Umberto Eco 's famous 1962 essay, ‘The...

Temporary Autonomous Zone

Temporary Autonomous Zone   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Autonomous Zone (TAZ) Anarchist poet and social activist Hakim Bey's radical proposal for a concept of utopia suited to the historical conditions of late capitalism . Conceived in the late 1980s when the Cold War still dominated geopolitical thought and the Internet was in its infancy, the temporary autonomous zone proposed to deploy the resources of the latter in order to offer an alternative political model to the capitalism/socialism binary underpinning the former. Arguing that the all or nothing rhetoric of revolution paralyses politics,...

readerly

readerly   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...the reader no such clarity of attribution. It is, therefore, a more plural text in Barthes ’s view, implying that it gives the reader greater freedom to construct meanings for themselves. As Fredric Jameson argues in The Modernist Papers ( 2007 ), there is an undisclosed ‘cold war’ ideology and politics behind this concept which wants to equate the readerly text with so-called ‘closed’ or totalitarian societies and the writerly text with ‘open’ or democratic societies (the terms open and closed are adapted from Umberto Eco ’s famous 1962 essay, ‘The...

Temporary Autonomous Zone

Temporary Autonomous Zone   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Autonomous Zone ( TAZ ) Anarchist poet and social activist Hakim Bey ’s radical proposal for a concept of utopia suited to the historical conditions of late capitalism . Conceived in the late 1980s when the Cold War still dominated geopolitical thought and the Internet was in its infancy, the temporary autonomous zone proposed to deploy the resources of the latter in order to offer an alternative political model to the capitalism/socialism binary underpinning the former. Arguing that the all or nothing rhetoric of revolution paralyses politics,...

Negri, Antonio

Negri, Antonio (1933)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...work is a breath of fresh air. Not surprisingly, then, Empire was a runaway bestseller. The events of September 11, 2001 , changed the international political climate quite dramatically and Hardt and Negri's sequel to Empire , Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire ( 2005 ) was, comparatively speaking, cold-shouldered. The critics who greeted Empire enthusiastically now sharpened their knives. In part this was because Multitude does not really answer the questions raised by the previous book—it still doesn't explain how the multitude will...

Negri, Antonio

Negri, Antonio (1933– )   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...work is a breath of fresh air. Not surprisingly, then, Empire was a runaway bestseller. The events of September 11, 2001 , changed the international political climate quite dramatically and Hardt and Negri’s sequel to Empire , Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire ( 2005 ) was, comparatively speaking, cold-shouldered. The critics who greeted Empire enthusiastically now sharpened their knives. In part this was because Multitude does not really answer the questions raised by the previous book—it still doesn’t explain how the multitude will...

Deleuze, Gilles

Deleuze, Gilles (1925–95)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...is a kind of physician, Deleuze looked to the work of Proust and Sacher-Masoch to see whether this idea applied to literature as well. Proust et les signes ( 1964 ), translated as Proust and Signs ( 1972 ), and Presentation de Sacher-Masoch ( 1967 ), translated as Coldness and Cruelty ( 1971 ), inaugurate a trajectory in Deleuze's work he named the ‘clinical’ that culminated in the publication of Critique et clinique ( 1993 ), translated as Essays Critical and Clinical ( 1997 ). In between the books on Proust and Sacher-Masoch, Deleuze wrote...

Deleuze, Gilles

Deleuze, Gilles (1925–95)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...is a kind of physician, Deleuze looked to the work of Proust and Sacher-Masoch to see whether this idea applied to literature as well. Proust et les signes ( 1964 ), translated as Proust and Signs ( 1972 ), and Presentation de Sacher-Masoch ( 1967 ), translated as Coldness and Cruelty ( 1971 ), inaugurate a trajectory in Deleuze’s work he named the ‘clinical’ that culminated in the publication of Critique et clinique ( 1993 ), translated as Essays Critical and Clinical ( 1997 ). In between the books on Proust and Sacher-Masoch, Deleuze wrote...

New Journalism

New Journalism   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...highly subjective feature story?), was Truman Capote’s In Cold Blood ( 1966 ), an account of a murder case in Kansas, presented in novelistic form but based on journalistic research and interviews. Other major examples in the late 1960s were Hunter S. Thompson ’s Hell’s Angels ( 1967 , about motorbike gangs), Tom Wolfe ’s The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test ( 1968 , about the drug subcultures of California), and Norman Mailer ’s Armies of the Night ( 1968 , about protests against the Vietnam War). Wolfe’s anthology-cum- manifesto , The New Journalism ...

doom

doom   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...crack of doom: see crack . doom and gloom a general feeling of pessimism or despondency. This expression, sometimes found as gloom and doom , was particularly pertinent to fears about a nuclear holocaust during the cold war period of the 1950s and 1960s. It became a catchphrase in the 1968 film Finian's Rainbow...

button

button   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...button: see bright . button your lip remain silent. informal on the button 1 punctually. 2 exactly right. informal, chiefly US press the button initiate an action or train of events. informal During the cold war period, this expression was often used with reference to the possible action of the US or Soviet presidents in starting a nuclear war. push ( or press) someone's buttons be successful in arousing or provoking a reaction in someone. ...

bridge

bridge   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...burn your bridges: see burn your boats at burn . cross that bridge when you come to it deal with a problem when and if it arises. 1998 Spectator As to what would happen to the case for non-proliferation when the Cold War was won, the allies would cross that bridge when they came to it, which seemed at the time well beyond any foreseeable...

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