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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Afghan War

Afghan War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
348 words

...Ghazi tribesmen. The Afghans captured the British military store, and on 6 January 1842 about 4,500 British and Indian troops, with 12,000 camp‐followers, offered a safe‐conduct by Dost Mohammed , left Kabul to make their way in the intense cold of winter down the Khyber Pass, and so to India. Thousands died of cold and hunger, others were attacked and mutilated by Afghans; only one man, the army surgeon William Brydon , reached Jalalabad on 13 January 1842 . In summer 1842 the new governor‐general, Lord Ellenborough , decided that British troops...

Yorke family

Yorke family   Reference library

Herbert Rosengarten

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,046 words

...nature in her relations with Robert Moore and Caroline Helstone . She imbibes her father's radical views, and pertly lectures Caroline on the evils of the war and the established church. However, she is doomed to an early death, and in a very moving passage the narrator speaks of a pilgrimage made ‘some years ago’ to ‘a grave new-made in a heretic cemetery’ where ‘Jessie lay cold, coffined, solitary’ (ch. 23). Jessy was modelled on Mary Taylor 's younger sister Martha Taylor ( 1819–42 ). The livelier of the two sisters and her father's...

Nina Balatka

Nina Balatka   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
841 words

...the novel's distinct societies. Nina's life is so isolated that it comes as a shock when, driven by despair to the Charles Bridge, she joins worshippers beside the Virgin's statue, and is recognized, before crossing to the figure of St John Nepomucene behind which, in bitter cold and darkness, she contemplates suicide. Death by water pervades the novel with Dickensian forcefulness. Trollope establishes that motif early on when Lotta Luxa, the Zamenoys' clever and prejudiced servant, remarks that she would drown herself rather than be jilted by a Jew....

letters

letters   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,249 words

...earlier wars which throbbed ‘with enthusiasm & romance’ ( L iii 135). These words were written to Florence Henniker when memories of the Boer War were still fresh. A year later, Hardy writes again to Mrs Henniker that ‘politics have played me a shabby trick of coming to a crisis just at the moment when I meant to bring out Dynasts II . … I feel rather gloomy about it, as indeed about most things’ ( L iii 190). War, with its inhumanity and suffering, affected Hardy deeply. Thus he writes to Cockerell in December 1915 : ‘It is a gloomy time, in which...

Gondal saga

Gondal saga   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,424 words

...themselves to a life of ‘change and suffering’ ( ‘Cold in the earth’ ). Gondal is of particular importance in relation to Emily Brontë's only novel, Wuthering Heights . The relationship between the two is inescapable: not only do we find similar themes, associations, and images which strongly suggest that the novel grew out of the epic, but Emily clearly returned to Gondal after Wuthering Heights was completed. In September 1846 , she began copying into her ‘Gondal Poems’ notebook a civil war poem which she later revised in May 1848 , the year of...

politics, Trollope and

politics, Trollope and   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,021 words

...and Trollope admitted this outcome ‘was to a certain extent a satisfaction’ ( Auto XVI). But Trollope 's two weeks as a candidate in Beverley were still miserable, ‘the most wretched fortnight of my manhood’ ( Auto XVT). He despised the experience in almost every way. He was cold and wet, walking through the grey October streets, talking to voters who knew him not, and cared even less for what he had to say. Politics here was not about ideas or policies, or even Trollope 's possibilities as a representative. Politics was local with a vengeance. ‘I had...

health and medicine

health and medicine   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,755 words

... 1833 affected both town and country dwellers. Leeds, York, and Birmingham were hard hit. The ‘great influenza’ of 1847–8 began in London in November 1847 , lingered there until January, then spread to the rest of the country. Charlotte and her sisters had either influenza or colds in January 1848 . In England as a whole, this epidemic caused more than 5,000 deaths. Other outbreaks followed in 1855 and 1889–94 . There were also dangerous epidemics of measles: in 1839 measles caused 773 deaths in Manchester and 383 in Leeds, compared with smallpox...

Wuthering Heights. A Novel

Wuthering Heights. A Novel   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
5,396 words

...had to listen to a sermon by the old servant Joseph in a cold attic, while her brother Hindley and his wife enjoyed themselves downstairs. They are later punished by Hindley for scampering on the moors. Lockwood dreams that he is listening to an interminable sermon that ends in a fight; he wakes and finds a fir tree outside tapping on the lattice window. He dozes again and the knocking becomes nightmare: he breaks the window to stop the noise and his fingers are grasped by a ‘little, ice-cold hand!’ (ch. 3). As a child's voice cries to be let in, he...

Little Dorrit

Little Dorrit   Reference library

Paul Schlicke

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,050 words

...of society at large as a kind of prison which entraps everyone save those (principally the story's heroine) who can find spiritual freedom through the power of love. After being delayed by quarantine on his way home to England after twenty years in China, Arthur Clennam is coldly received on a dismal Sunday by his crippled mother and her servant, Jeremiah Flintwinch . Suspecting a wrong committed by his deceased father, Clennam resigns his share in the family business. He meets Amy, known as Little Dorrit , who does casual sewing jobs for Mrs Clennam,...

Satires of Circumstance

Satires of Circumstance   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,505 words

...from the particular to the universal. The tragedy of the sinking of the Titanic becomes for Hardy a contemplation of man's hubris. The poem contrasts the luxurious, ‘unsinkable’ liner and its wealthy passengers with their final resting-place so many fathoms below the ocean, amid cold currents, grotesque sea-worms, and ‘dim moon-eyed fishes’. Yet another fine poem is ‘Channel Firing’, which, written in April 1914 , has a prophetic ring about it. Working in his study at Max Gate, Hardy would in those days have heard the British Fleet at gunnery practice. The...

drama and dramatists during Dickens's lifetime

drama and dramatists during Dickens's lifetime   Reference library

Louis James

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,103 words

...at Wellington House, the 13-year-old Dickens staged melodramas, including Pixérécourt's The Dog of Montargis , with a white mouse acting the canine hero, on a toy stage. With characteristic thoroughness, he studied acting techniques, and considered becoming an actor. Only a heavy cold kept him from attending an audition at Covent Garden and perhaps changing his career. In 1838 his farce The strange Gentleman was enjoying a moderate success. Pickwick Papers , however, taking off like a delayed rocket, then confirmed his novelistic vocation. But he never...

France

France   Reference library

Michael Hollington

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,581 words

...a garden’ (to Beard , 21 June 1856 ). An admirer of Napoleon I attempting to live out the glorious ideals of Revolutionary France, Beaucourt clearly stands in sharp contrast to ‘the cold-blooded scoundrel at the head of France’ (Dickens's phrase for Louis Napoleon ) at that time. Though Boulogne was then the centre for Anglo-French troop collaboration during the Crimean War , it was Beaucourt-Mutuel's microcosmic haven of peaceful integration between Britain and France that captured Dickens's moral imagination during the writing of Little Dorrit and...

Winter Words

Winter Words   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,931 words

...knew well from poetic tradition—‘The Gods of Greece’ is marked in his copy of Heine's Book of Songs —and his treatment of it borrows its inflection from one of his early poems—‘To Flowers from Italy in Winter’, which has a similar sense of southern beauty exposed to northern cold—the reader cannot but read syncretically, and remember back to poems in earlier volumes like ‘God's Funeral’. ‘Drinking Song’ is comparable in its treatment of belief, listing the extinction of superseded ideas in the hands of a range of thinkers from Copernicus to Darwin and...

poetry by Emily Brontë

poetry by Emily Brontë   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,565 words

...the Brontës ( 1985 ), 239). Critics also note the numerous banalities of cliché and bombastic outbursts of Gondal characters. ‘Far, far away’, for example, has all the lurid melodrama of a John Martin painting. The lonely speaker calls on a ‘shade’ (‘Deserted one! thy corpse lies cold | And mingled with a foreign mould—’) to commune with her. As she recalls his image (identified as P. B. Shelley by Chitham EB , pp. 132–4), the speaker assumes the sorrow of his ‘blighted name’ and his tears that ‘deluge my heart like the rain | On cursed Gomorrah's howling...

religion

religion   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,328 words

...approach is much to the fore. Hardy's descriptive eye and analytic method owe far more to the 19th-century geologist than to the 18th-century sermon-writer. This was in part temperamental rather than acquired. In the early 1840s Hardy's father had thrown a stone on a bitterly cold morning in the direction of a starving fieldfare and killed it: Hardy ‘said he had never forgotten how the body of the fieldfare felt in his hand: the memory had always haunted him’ ( LW 479). Hardy had, however, been lent by Horace *Moule one of the seminal works of...

Mayor of Casterbridge, The

Mayor of Casterbridge, The   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,338 words

...Susan dies and, just after telling Elizabeth-Jane that she is his daughter and not merely a stepdaughter as she had supposed, Henchard discovers a letter written by Susan that makes it clear that the girl is the child of the sailor, Newson. Henchard's manner towards her becomes cold, even hostile, and she goes to live as a companion to Lucetta, whom she has met by chance and who, under her new name of Templeman (adopted after inheriting property from an aunt), has come to live at High-Place Hall in the town in the hope of marrying Henchard. Lucetta and...

Dickens, Charles

Dickens, Charles   Reference library

Paul Schlicke and John Drew

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
5,443 words

...can be questioned. The evidence of his correspondence suggests that, until his journals gave him a steady income in 1850 , he was frequently casting round for other kinds of role in public life. The first of these abortive public lives was that of a professional actor. A heavy cold prevented his attending an audition with the stage manager of Covent Garden in the spring of 1832 , just at the time when his writing career was beginning to bring in the kind of money he had thought of turning to the stage to earn. ‘See how near I may have been to another sort...

Emily Jane Brontë

Emily Jane Brontë   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
5,318 words

...her life, Emily fought tenaciously to preserve the liberty to be herself, a condition she saw as essential for survival. Emily Brontë 's death was consistent with her actions in life. Following Branwell's death and funeral in September 1848 , the family all suffered from winter colds and coughs. But Charlotte noticed that Emily looked particularly thin and pale. ‘I fear she has pain in the chest—and I sometimes catch a shortness in her breathing when she has moved at all quickly … Her reserved nature occasions one great uneasiness of mind—it is useless to...

sequels and ‘incremental literature’

sequels and ‘incremental literature’   Reference library

Patsy Stoneman

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
5,355 words

...how much she gave for her lace shawl in Bradford’, while ‘Emily wouldn't come in at all. She just stood up the road and eyed the gate’ (ch. 2). Stella Gibbons , like Rachel Ferguson , earned her living as a journalist, but where Ferguson's novel is whimsical in tone, Gibbons's Cold Comfort Farm ( 1932 ) is a tribute to ‘The Higher Common Sense’. Its thoroughly modern heroine, Flora Poste , takes in hand a whole family of tragic cousins, solving their problems by a mixture of humour and practicality. Cousin Seth, a very good-looking latter-day Heathcliff,...

London

London   Reference library

Andrew Sanders, Andrew Sanders, Andrew Sanders, Andrew Sanders, Paul Schlicke, David Parker, Andrew Sanders, David Parker, Andrew Sanders, Andrew Sanders, Anne Humpherys, and David Parker

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
12,596 words

...and Stobbles's counting house ( OMF 3.16), even of the grand establishment of Dombey and Son ( DS 13). Characteristically, Dickens encapsulates London in imaginative prose. To poor travellers approaching its outskirts, it is ‘the monster, roaring in the distance’ ( DS 33). On a cold spring evening, with an east wind blowing, it becomes ‘a black shrill city, combining the qualities of a smoky house and a scolding wife … a beleaguered city, invested by the great Marsh forces of Essex and Kent’ ( OMF 1.12). Such visions, however, are underpinned by a clear...

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