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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

PIETAS

PIETAS (LATIN)   Reference library

Blandine Colot

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
2,918 words

...in drama, for example, in the comedies of Plautus and Terence, and in the epistolary genre. There remained something in this term that attached to the notion of a code, a moral code, for instance; but that pietas was somehow “coded” does not necessarily mean that it was cold or rigidified by morality (such are the clichés often governing our image of the Romans), for here it is a matter of expressing love for a father, a mother, a daughter, a brother…. The semantic field of pietas includes essentially the terms honestas, dignitas , and ...

PRAVDA

PRAVDA (RUSSIAN)   Reference library

Constantin Sigov

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
6,735 words

...at the antipodes of the utopia of the “pravda-state.” X. The Paradox of Pravda In the American translation of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia in thirty-five volumes—which is among the great dictionaries, being both a reference work and a unique testimony to the period of the cold war—the word pravda is translated as “truth.” No reference is made to justice, right, or righteousness. This biased translation of a biased article devoted to the newspaper with the largest circulation on earth represents the tip of the iceberg: the British called this...

TO TI ÊN EINAI

TO TI ÊN EINAI (GREEK)   Reference library

Jean-François Courtine and Albert Rijksbaron

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
6,579 words

...later, it becomes clear that this polysemy of the question ti esti? is in turn only an echo of the polysemy of being, or rather, of esti [ ἐστι ‎]. It is clearly unnatural in modern European languages to answer a question like “What is it?” with “numerous,” “large,” “blue,” “cold,” “on the horizon”; but when, “about a white color over there,” one says, “It is white, and it is a color [ to ekkeimenon leukon einai kai chrôma ( τὸ ἐϰϰείμενον λευϰόν εἶναι ϰαὶ χϱῶμα ‎)],” then one is in fact saying what it is (in response to the question “What is it?”) while...

WELT

WELT (SPANISH)   Reference library

Pascal David

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
8,027 words

...the denotative equivalency of the two verbs, but slippery in their unequal connotations. In the literary French of the nineteenth century, “knowing the world” implies sexual experience, a certain fleshy materialism underfoot. This seems a far cry from Kant’s anthropology, at a cold remove from carnal commerce. With this rendering Foucault inadvertently confounds the two modes. When he states that one mode has merely “understood the game” while the other has joué le jeu , it becomes difficult to separate “knowing” the world from “having” it. For as these...

PEOPLE

PEOPLE   Reference library

Marc Crépon, Barbara Cassin, and Claudia Moatti

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
13,225 words

...the physical appearance of their peoples [ peri tôn ethneôn tês morphês ( πεϱὶ τῶν ἔθνεων τῆς μοϱφῆς ‎)], in which they are distinct and do not at all resemble each other” (XII, 1). This was, of course, the term Aristotle adopted ( Politics , VII.7) to distinguish the ethnê of cold regions such as Europe, who are full of courage ( thumos [ θυμός ‎]) but lacking in intelligence ( dianoia [ διάνοια ‎]) and skill ( technê [ τέχνη ‎]), and are thus free but not organized into cities ( apoliteuta [ ἀπολίτευτα ‎], 1327b26), from those of Asia, who are...

ITALIAN

ITALIAN   Reference library

Remi Bodei

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
12,775 words

...a lasting pleasure. Paraphrasing Carl von Clausewitz , one might say that “ultraphilosophy” is nothing but the continuation of philosophy through other means, namely, those of poetry—means which, once they are known and used, ought nevertheless not trouble or overly excite “very cold reason.” Philosophy should use the indeterminate beauty of poetry to reject any conception of form as pure, fixed, rigid, and innate form (Platonic in its origin, but taken up by Christianity, and identified with God). Since all knowledge comes from the senses, and is fueled by...

SPEECH ACT

SPEECH ACT   Reference library

Barbara Cassin, Sandra Laugier, and Irène Rosier-Catach

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
10,401 words

...philosophy, the order of nonsense. Austin is the inventor of the theory of speech acts, even if the expression “speech act” is John Searle ’s. To understand his point of view, we have to see, for example, that moral judgments are speech acts: “It is not good to lie” and “It’s cold” (said to someone who has left a window open) are each, in one way or another, utterances of blame, that is, moral acts, and not merely utterances that describe something—neither an empirical state of affairs, nor the taking of an “emotive” or psychological position regarding a...

TO TRANSLATE

TO TRANSLATE   Reference library

Clara Auvray-Assayas, Christian Bernier, Barbara Cassin, André Paul, and Irène Rosier-Catach

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
17,498 words

...ἡγεμονιϰῶς ‎]) Greek model, which binds a leader ( hêgemôn [ ἡγεμών ‎]) and a free man. This is what is at stake in the entire book 7.7 of Politics , which lays out a first theory of climate, in which the Greeks occupy a temperate middle zone between the thymic, passionate, and cold zones of Europe, in which life is free but disorganized, and a hot, dianoetic, and technical Asia, in which life is lived in submission. As for Greece, it is both passionate and intellectual; it is “capable of living in freedom within the best political institutions, and it has...

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