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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

FULLER, Roy

FULLER, Roy (1912–91)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
63 words

...FULLER, Roy ( Broadbent ) ( 1912–91 ) British poet whose work for children included the novels Savage Gold ( 1946 ), With My Little Eye ( 1948 ), and Catspaw ( 1966 ), a fantasy which is a parable about the Cold War. Seen Grandpa Lately? ( 1972 ) and Poor Roy ( 1977 ) are books of poetry for...

James, Jesse

James, Jesse   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
162 words

...Jesse ( 1847–1882 ), America's cold-blooded version of Robin Hood , was born on 5 September 1847 in Missouri. James has achieved the romantic polish of legend, becoming a model for literary and cinematic outlaws for more than a century. His ties with pro-Confederate guerrillas during the Civil War gave him a label as an outlaw. Forming their first gang after the war, he and his brother robbed banks, trains, and stagecoaches across the American West. In a feigned attempt to “settle down,” James married his cousin Zerelda in 1875 . James's worst...

Tunis, Edwin

Tunis, Edwin   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
168 words

...Edwin ( 1897–1973 ), American illustrator and writer. Born in Cold Spring Harbor, New York, and educated at the Maryland Institute of Art and Design, Tunis served in the Army Air Service in World War I before becoming a commercial artist and an award-winning author-illustrator of children's nonfiction. Focusing on American social and industrial history of the colonial period, his books are recognized for their careful research, clear explanations, and profuse, detailed illustrations. Tunis's first book, Oars, Sails, and Steam: A Picture Book of Ships (...

Kelly, Walt

Kelly, Walt   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
153 words

...Swamp, Kelly's deftly drawn animal characters and cornpone dialect masked the strip's subversive political satire, as Pogo skewered Richard Nixon , George Wallace , and Senator Joseph McCarthy (depicted as the bobcat Simple J. Malarkey ), and shrewdly commented on the cold war, desegregation, and Vietnam. Pogo's cry of “We have met the enemy and he is us,” is one of the most oft-quoted lines in the history of comic strips. Beginning with the best-selling Pogo in 1951 and I Go Pogo in 1952 , Kelly published over three dozen cartoon books. Though...

Utopia and Dystopia

Utopia and Dystopia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
614 words

...Such narratives have been a burgeoning genre since the late 1960s, when they emerged in large part as a belated response to Cold War politics. Linked by genre and theme to the writings of Aldous Huxley and George Orwell , dystopian fictions for young audiences frequently took the form of post-disaster narratives—projections of a world inhabited only by residual human communities after the Earth has been laid waste by global war fought with nuclear weapons. Rather than imagining a real future, however, such works deplore the contemporary world's inability...

Swindells, Robert

Swindells, Robert   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
210 words

...Book Award, as did Room 13 ( 1989 ), a present-day Dracula story. The Carnegie Medal–winning Stone Cold ( 1993 ) depicts homelessness; Unbeliever ( 1995 ) and Abomination ( 1998 ) represent the perceived dangers of fundamentalist Christianity. Daz 4 Zoe ( 1990 ) is a dystopia told by alternating girl and boy narrators, whose class differences are embodied in their language. Several stories, such as Hurricane Summer ( 1997 ), are set in World War II. Dramatic plotting, contemporary themes and language, and a certain literary self-consciousness...

Steiner, Rudolph

Steiner, Rudolph   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
204 words

...philosopher, Steiner identified the fundamental problem of the late 19th and early 20th centuries as a schismatic disjunction unraveling the internal connections between science, religion, and art. As science became coldly factual, art became exceedingly individualized and religion became excessively scholastic. The catastrophe of World War I confirmed his worst fears as Western culture seemed on the verge of disintegration. In 1919 Steiner was offered an opportunity to put his philosophy (anthroposophy, the “wisdom of man”) into action with the founding...

Linklater, Eric

Linklater, Eric   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
530 words

...sea. The two boys enter the underwater realm with the help of magic oil. The struggle stands over the knots that keep together the latitudes and longitudes—a truly ingenious idea. The pirates' conspiracy is to replace all the knots with new and better ones. Written during the Cold War, the novel is a biting political satire disguised as an exciting adventure. Both novels exploit the familiar theme of children who must save the world from evil and both are based on the Romantic view of the innocent child. As is common in similar stories, the parents are...

O'Brien, Robert C.

O'Brien, Robert C.   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
341 words

...themselves and all of their kind. The rats then decide that self-sufficiency is vital and move their haven away from the curious eyes and dangerous machinery of human beings. O'Brien's last two books were darker in their subject matter: A Report from Group 17 portrays the cold war as heated up to biological warfare; Z for Zachariah is about a girl fleeing from a sadist in a world ravaged by a nuclear holocaust. Z for Zachariah was published posthumously, having been completed by members of O'Brien's family after his death. O'Brien's daughter, Jane...

Council on Interracial Books for Children

Council on Interracial Books for Children   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
358 words

...writers of color, including the 1974 winner Mildred Taylor . In 1976 , it drafted a resolution on “Racism and Sexism Awareness,” endorsed by the American Civil Liberties Union and adopted by the American Library Association. Within the contentious environment of the Cold War and the Civil Rights Movement, however, the CIBC also faced considerable opposition. Groups calling for social change were regularly accused of Communist connections, and in the CIBC's case, the charge accelerated following their 1976 publication of Human (and Anti-Human)...

dystopian fiction

dystopian fiction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
410 words

...of science fiction or speculative fiction, it depicts a narrative environment in which society has all but broken down and extreme forms of governmental, societal, or environmental disorder have taken over. The genre grew in popularity from the early 1950s when fear of the Cold War was increasingly represented in novels such as Andre Norton ’s Star Man’s Son: 2250 AD ( 1952 ) and Madeleine L’Engle’s A Wrinkle in Time ( 1962 ). Post-apocalyptic visions of the future remained popular well into the 1980s, for example Gudrun Pausewang ’s Die Letzen...

Graphic Novels

Graphic Novels   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
640 words
Illustration(s):
1

...“graphic novel” is also used by many in the comic book industry to differentiate between darker works and the lighter comics aimed at children; they may contain material some consider not suitable for younger audiences. The graphic novel came into fashion in the climate of the Cold War. After conventional comic book heroes such as Superman and Captain America gained a foothold, an underground movement in the 1960s set the stage for graphic novels to enter the mainstream. Graphic Novel . Front cover of volume 2 of Maus by Art Spiegelman (New York: Pantheon,...

Bradbury, Ray

Bradbury, Ray   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
567 words

...Wicked This Way Comes ( 1962 ), I Sing the Body Electric! ( 1969 ), and Long After Midnight ( 1976 ). Bradbury's unparalleled masterpiece is Fahrenheit 451 ( 1953 ), a ruthless dystopia showing a future society in which all written works are banned. Published during the cold war, the novel was a biting satire of censorship and oppression of intellectuals in totalitarian regimes. Bradbury's other science fiction works also are clearly connected with contemporary reality and show sharp social and political awareness. The world of his novels and stories is...

Engdahl, Sylvia

Engdahl, Sylvia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
593 words

...accepting of limitations are also the preoccupations of Engdahl's other fiction. The Far Side of Evil ( 1971 ; revised edition, 2003 ), which describes Elana’s second mission, is more overtly political than its predecessor in dramatizing the dangers of totalitarianism and the Cold War mindset, but it simultaneously chronicles the growing maturity and acceptance of responsibility of the three young people at its center. Finally, the Children of the Star trilogy, unique in Engdahl's oeuvre in placing a male character at center stage, explores both the...

Seuss, Dr.

Seuss, Dr.   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,251 words
Illustration(s):
1

...it is clear that he continually addressed social, cultural, and political concerns, from his PM cartoons to his books for the young. In fact, many of his works can be read allegorically: Yertle the Turtle critiques fascism, The Butter Battle Book ( 1984 ) parodies the Cold War's arms race, and The Lorax concerns environmental conservation. Several books also have appeared posthumously, including Daisy-Head Mayzie ( 1995 ) and My Many Colored Days ( 1996 ). In 1993 Audrey Geisel founded Dr. Seuss Enterprises to license the commercial use of...

Rodari, Gianni

Rodari, Gianni   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
969 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the Communist Party. In 1958 he was appointed special correspondent and lead writer for Paese sera , a role he maintained until the end of his life. Rodari's abundant publications include travel writings resulting from journeys in Russia and China. In the 1950s, as the cold war began, Rodari was condemned by the Catholic Church for his promotion of communism; at the time the Church and the Italian Communist Party were the two great power blocs of Italian politics. In the 1960s Rodari traveled around schools, working closely with teachers and parents to...

Asian American Literature

Asian American Literature   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,704 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The first of many discriminatory laws to limit Chinese immigration was passed in 1880 . In 1942 , when America went to war with Japan, eighty thousand citizens of Japanese descent and forty thousand Japanese nationals were interred in concentration camps. Throughout World War II and the Cold War, American soldiers and citizens were conditioned to see Asians as enemies. Few Asian Americans published children's books in the post–World War II period, although Taro Yashima , who emigrated from Japan to escape persecution, achieved success with his first book, ...

Central America

Central America   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
2,119 words
Illustration(s):
1

...since 1900 , locating them in a single, generic entity she labels “Central America.” She introduces Soviet-bloc countries as suppliers of weapons to the region's working-class rebels but ignores U.S. military interventions on behalf of repressive regimes. By distorting Cold War history within Central America, and by describing both an illegally constituted government and its opponents as equal violators of human rights, Moeri implies that the region is inexplicably contentious, violent, and incapable of self-rule. Poetry and Picture Books Fernando...

Jansson, Tove

Jansson, Tove   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
2,234 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Finnish children's literature that treats war trauma mainly in realistic forms. In contrast, Jansson creates a self-contained, happy, idyllic world as if the war experience had not affected it—a nostalgia that produces bright as well as gloomy traces in her works. Generosity and hospitality are two other characteristic features, as seen clearly in the Moomin family's position toward newcomers and guests. The casual attitude to material things may be a reflection of the repetitive loss of property during the war, as well as the author's general bohemian view...

Racism

Racism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
2,036 words

...remained associated in children's books with a largely mythical China and Japan (e.g., in Amy Tan ’s The Chinese Siamese Cat , 1994 , with grotesque décor and offensive stereotypes by illustrator Gretchen Schields ). Vietnam became a recurring subject in Cold War epics stressing the pro- American war effort. Literature for Children about Asians and Asian Americans ( 1987 ) by Esther C. Jenkins and Mary C. Austin covers Vietnam as well as China, Japan, Korea, and other nations in Southeast Asia. CIBC had already undertaken surveys similar to the Asian...

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