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Overview

Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Lallans

Lallans   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Dictionary of the Scottish Language: I’ the how-dumb-deid o’ the cauld hairst nicht The warl’ like an eemis stane Wags i’ the lift; An’ my eerie memories fa’ Like a yowdendrift. [ how-dumb-deid (Jamieson) ‘the middle of the night, when silence reigns; Ayrshire’; cauld (general) cold; hairst (general) autumn; nicht (general) night; warl’ (general) world; eemis (Jamieson) insecurely balanced, toppling; stane (general) stone; lift (archaic) sky; fa ’ (general) fall; yowdendrift (Jamieson) ‘snow driven by the wind’] Literary Lallans remains viable...

Liberia

Liberia   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...can be seen in Settler Da pekin cryin , Kru Di pekin de krai (The child is crying), Settler I ain see him , Kru A neva siam . Distinctively Liberian words include: bugabug termite, dumboy boiled, pounded cassava, favour to resemble (compare AmE), fresh cold a runny nose, head cold, groundpea peanut, groundnut, jina spirits, kanki measurement for rice (around two cups), kwi a foreigner, outside child a child acknowledged although born outside marriage, sasse cheeky, smart, sassy. Traditionally, the standard has been emphasized and the...

African American English

African American English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,435 words

...as ‘We comin’ for We’re coming and ‘We be here’ for We’ll be here . (2) A syllabic /n/ commonly replaces /ŋ/ in -ing forms: ‘comin’ and ‘runnin’ for coming and running . (3) Word-final consonant clusters are reduced: ‘des’ for desk , ‘tes’ for test , ‘col’ for cold . (4) Past-tense endings are also absent in such clusters: ‘look’ for looked , ‘talk’ for talked . (5) Word-initial /d/ often takes the place of / ð ‎/, as in ‘dat day’ for that day and ‘dis house’ for this house . (6) Word-final /f/ often replaces /θ/, as in ‘boof’ for...

Word

Word   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
2,085 words

...to position, direction, space, and time. In principle, such words are a closed set to which new items are seldom added. As lubricants, grammatical words are like affixes: the out in throw out is like the prefix e -in eject ; the before in before the war means the same as pre -in pre-war . They can also function like affixes, as in he-man and yes-man . The onomastic word. The word in terms of naming establishes special, often unique reference: the difference between Napoleon and emperor . It may be simple like Smith or complex like Smithsonian...

de Lauretis, Teresa

de Lauretis, Teresa (b. 1938)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,057 words

...imaginary closure, and false consciousness. De Lauretis asks whether consciousness has to be always already false consciousness or whether the opposition in Lacan between the truth of the unconscious and the deception of the conscious might not be the discursive product of a “cold war” in which Eco's contrary refusal to countenance the subjective in the social also participates. Her next step is to revalue the social spaces of everyday life as sites for the production and changing of meaning. The gendering of the bodies who participate in these everyday...

Classical Compound

Classical Compound   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
4,958 words

...little smallish; small-minded; little-used; belittle L — G micr microscope; microcosmic 11.6 V hot; warm red-hot; hot-headed; warm-hearted; warm up L cal(1) calorific G therm thermometer; thermal; isotherm 11.7 V cold cold-blooded; ice-cold L frig frigid; refrigeration G cry cryogenic 11.8 V high high-born; height; heighten L alt altitude; altimeter G acr acropolis; acrophobia 11.9 V deep; low deep-seated; deepen; low-born; lowly; low-lying; below L ...

Rhetorical vision

Rhetorical vision   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,966 words

...theory to study the rhetoric of political campaigns. Bormann, Cragan, and Shields, “An Expansion of the Rhetorical Vision Component of the Symbolic Convergence Theory: The Cold War Paradigm Case” ( Communication Monographs , 64, March, 1996 ) surveyed and synthesized the results of eighty-seven fantasy theme analysis studies in their analysis of the creation and demise of the Cold War rhetorical vision. In the early years of the development of symbolic convergence theory, a common complaint was that fantasy was a confusing technical term for a method that...

Debate

Debate   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,369 words

...primarily responsible for the onset of the Cold War.” The aim of the resolution is to capture in a clear, precise, and unbiased statement just what is in dispute. It is intended to favor neither side and not to predetermine the outcome. Resolutions are grouped in various categories, with the most common distinction being one among resolutions of fact, value, and policy. Resolutions of fact actually tend to be concerned with disputes about interpretation, as in the example of the historians' debate about the Cold War, rather than with disagreements about claims...

Ambiguity

Ambiguity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,995 words

...Takes the position that human experience is so relative that experiences' meanings legitimately may be construed with few or no interpretive limits. Contrast with Bitzer. Zarefsky, David . President Johnson's War on Poverty: Rhetoric and History . University, Ala., 1986. Critically analyzes this administration's public discourse regarding its War on Poverty to demonstrate how rhetoric and experiential developments interact to shape policy. — Kathryn M....

Politics

Politics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
13,279 words

...administration's foreign policy, which describes a battle of rival frames between the executive branch and the press, is a paradigm example of this sort of research. Kuypers demonstrated that the executive's loss of the potent cold war frame allowed the press to exercise a rival power of definition in framing the meaning of post-cold-war events. The work of Raymond Gozzi ( 1999 ), on the mass media's vast enhancement of the power of metaphor as a cognitive model in political discourse, represents another sort of political frame study. The work of the feminist...

Science

Science   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,139 words

...in the citizen–scientist tradition of the Founding Fathers, Americans remained fairly close to the British in their skeptical attitudes toward public support for professional scientific pursuits, that is, until the end of World War II, when science policy was made an integral part of national security. However, the end of the Cold War has witnessed a divestiture of public funding for research and education in science, which has led U.S. scientists to resort to many of the same strategies religions have used when church and state have been formally separated....

Communication

Communication   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
8,101 words

...Speaking into the Air , Chicago, 1999 ), two themes predominated in the post–World War II discourse on communication. One was a technological discourse associated with information theory and cybernetics. The other was a therapeutic discourse associated with Carl Rogers and what was later known as the human potential movement. As Peters points out, the drive for communication technology and therapy were both fueled by anxieties associated with the nuclear bomb and the cold war against communism. In light of these trends in society, it is not surprising that...

Pathos

Pathos   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
10,453 words

...In the aftermath of two world wars, writers in a number of fields concluded that formal argument is insufficient for the informal world of human conflict, and that human concerns cannot be reduced to the constraints required by formal logic. The result is a resurgence of interest in the theoretical aspects of pathos as a means to manage uncertainty. These reconsiderations are part of larger philosophical movements, and to some extent reawaken the nondogmatic aspects of rhetoric in its earliest centuries. After World War I, the American literary critic I....

Modern rhetoric

Modern rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,450 words

...Eldridge Cleaver, forms of rhetoric that could not easily be accommodated by traditional modes of criticism. [ See overview article on African-American rhetoric .] The antiwar rhetoric of the Yippies and of the teach-ins against the Vietnam War, the demonstrations and speeches of members of Vietnam Veterans Against the War, and the confrontations at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago and in the trial of the Chicago Eight that followed, cried out for criticism that was attuned to their distinctive character. At the same time, the second wave of...

Ēthos

Ēthos   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
10,506 words

...and social/ideological pressures. Reducing the Platonic eidē psychēs to a typology of conventional roles, Book 2 of the Rhetoric reads much like a cast list of Hellenic dramatis personae—the scheming, parsimonious old man; the brash, boasting youth; the man of anger; the cold coward; the pining lover—each considered “in terms of emotions and habits and age of life and fortune … including what sorts of things each type of person chooses and does” (1388b). Finally, a cluster of brief passages pertain to “stylistic ēthos” and ēthopoiea as, for example:...

alliance

alliance  

N. a union or association formed for mutual benefit, especially between countries or organizations: a defensive alliance between Australia and New Zealand | divisions within the alliance.
Pacific Islands

Pacific Islands  

Oceania, or the Pacific Islands region, includes Melanesia (the islands of black peoples), Polynesia (many islands), and Micronesia (small islands) over a vast area covering one third of the globe ...
urban renewal

urban renewal  

Fashionable American term of the 1950s, which really meant large-scale destructive redevelopment of urban areas, often in association with central or municipal government. It was adopted in the ...
Korea

Korea  

A region of eastern Asia forming a peninsula between the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea, now divided along the 38th parallel into South Korea and North Korea. Possessed of a distinct national and ...
communism

communism  

A theory of classless society with common ownership of property and wealth and centrally planned production and distribution based on the principle ‘from everyone according to their skills, to ...

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