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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Cold War

Cold War   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
64 words

... War The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain was allied to the USA. The Cold War came to an end with the collapse of Soviet power, largely as a result of its intervention in Afghanistan, and its progress towards...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
800 words

...direct military conflict unacceptable. Many local, or proxy, wars were fought, but were contained by tacit mutual agreement. The immediate trigger for the Cold War was the falling out of the wartime allies over the post-war division of Europe. In 1947 the United States began Marshall Plan aid to western Europe, and in 1949 NATO was formed. The focus of the Cold War widened to Asia—where the communists emerged victorious in China in 1949 —with wars in Korea, Vietnam, and Afghanistan. The Cold War came to an end with the collapse of communism in eastern...

Cold War.

Cold War.   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,125 words

...Relations and the End of the Cold War , 1994. Melvyn P. Leffler and David S. Painter , eds., Origins of the Cold War: An International History , 1994. Thomas J. McCormick , America's Half-Century: United States Foreign Policy in the Cold War , 2d ed., 1995. James E. Cronin , The World the Cold War Made: Order, Chaos, and the Return of History , 1996. Walter LaFeber , America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945–1996 , 8th ed., 1996. Vladislav Zubok and Constantine Pleshakov , Inside the Kremlin's Cold War: From Stalin to Khrushchev , 1996. John...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,097 words

... War . The Cold War ( 1917–1991 ), the popular name given to the political, economic, and military struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union, had its origins in 1917 with the success of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and concluded with the dissolution of the Soviet nation in 1991 . Although most Cold War battles were fought on the international front, America's fight against Communism often had marked domestic repercussions as well. In both the international and domestic conflicts related to the Cold War, African Americans were not...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Christopher N. Lanigan

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
241 words

... War . The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain was allied to the USA. Britain’s role in the emergence of the Cold War is controversial. One view is that war-ravaged Britain was marginal to the development of frosty American–Soviet relations, and that her encouragement of a permanent US military presence in Europe was largely related to fears of German revival. Cultural differences and the repressive nature of the...

Post–Cold War Era.

Post–Cold War Era.   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,379 words

...Cold War Era. The end of the Cold War in the late 1980s and early 1990s, one of the most momentous developments in modern world history, brought a reorientation in a number of areas of American life. The impact was greatest on foreign policy, as the United States sought a new role in international affairs. But the disappearance of a unifying external threat also led to serious disagreements about domestic policy and contributed to a fragmentation in social and cultural life. The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and in the Soviet Union led to the...

Cold War and Africa

Cold War and Africa (1945–1989)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...of the Cold War The costs of African conflicts during the Cold War can be estimated in a variety of ways. Loss of lives, including those by war-related famines, is the most obvious. Between 1945 and 1989 , African wars related to the Cold War took the lives of about 5.5 million people, mostly civilians. More difficult to assess are economic, social, and cultural losses due to the overall devastation of the country. Civilian populations, especially farmers and other food producers, were often the primary victims. In many countries Cold War conflicts...

Guerrilla Movements and Armed Struggle in Cold War Mexico

Guerrilla Movements and Armed Struggle in Cold War Mexico   Reference library

Alexander Aviña

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,185 words

...19 percent [and] the top 10 percent enjoyed 49 percent of the national income.” 6 Such inequality would only increase in subsequent decades as world war gave way to Cold War. From World War to Cold War Throughout the 1940s, organized labor in Mexico (and much of Latin America) actively confronted such inequality and articulated their demands for independent unions through direct action. Indeed, the Cold War began in Latin America in the late 1940s in response to the “linked and mutually reinforcing … postwar advance of labor, the Left, and democracy.” 7 By...

Post–Cold War Era.

Post–Cold War Era.  

The end of the Cold War in the late 1980s and early 1990s, one of the most momentous developments in modern world history, brought a reorientation in a number of ...
Potsdam Conference

Potsdam Conference   Reference library

June GRASSO

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...however, made consensus difficult. Many analysts point to the Potsdam Conference as a harbinger of the Cold War. On 1 August Allied leaders agreed to the twenty-one-part “Protocol of the Proceedings.” Foremost were the procedures for the reconstruction of Europe, particularly Germany. The Allies divided Germany into four zones for the purposes of disarmament and demilitarization, called for the destruction of Nazism, and proposed trials for major war criminals. The controversy over German reparations was settled by giving the Soviets access to resources...

Quemoy and Matsu

Quemoy and Matsu (2008)   Reference library

Bent NIELSEN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...to tourism. Agriculture is the main occupation on Quemoy. Bent NIELSEN Further Reading First Taiwan Strait Crisis: Quemoy and Matsu Islands. (2005). Retrieved December 30, 2008, from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/quemoy_matsu.htm Szonyi, M. (2008). Cold War island: Quemoy on the front line . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ...

Zhāng Zhòngjǐng

Zhāng Zhòngjǐng (150–219 ce)   Reference library

Lena SPRINGER and Liu MIN

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,971 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Zhang’s Treatise was initially lost: most likely a victim of the wars occurring during the Three Kingdoms period. The text no longer survives in an original version, as it has been heavily edited over the centuries. Later physicians compiled Zhang’s work into two main multi-volume books. Sections of Zhang Zhongjing’s text—which was one of a vast number of medical texts to have been lost—have been reprinted and transmitted in new editions. The first book, usually translated as On Cold-Induced Damage ( Shānhán Lún 伤寒论 ‎), dealt with treating epidemic...

Perspectives on the United States—Chinese

Perspectives on the United States—Chinese   Reference library

Anthony A. LOH

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...by a series of events and issues in the post–Cold War era (since 1989 ). Iraq War ( 1991 ) First, Beijing was astonished by the advanced technological wizardry of U.S. weaponry and by the rapid defeat of Iraq’s armed forces in the 1991 Iraq War. It jolted China’s People’s Liberation Army ( PLA ) into initiating an aggressive program to modernize its military hardware (equipment) and software (technology, doctrines). NATO operations against Serbia in 1999 and yet again in 2003 , when war in Iraq resumed, further shocked China. Taiwan Strait...

Dalian

Dalian (2007)   Reference library

Gregory VEECK

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...history of Dalian (urban area 12,574 square kilometers) and its adjacent district of Lushunkou (Port Arthur) represents the tumultuous history of most of coastal China over the last 150 years—from dynastic decline and colonial occupation during the Qing dynasty ( 1644–1912 ) to Cold War stagnation under Chinese Communist Party leader Mao Zedong ( 1949–1976 ) and finally to economic resurgence under the policies introduced by party leader Deng Xiaoping in 1978 . The site has been populated for more than two thousand years, but its mention in dynastic...

48 Group Club

48 Group Club   Reference library

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...or try to ignore a great power such as China because of ideological differences between East and West, they defied the prevailing Western view of China during the Cold War by making business contacts in communist China. In 1950 the United Kingdom was one of the first foreign states to recognize the People’s Republic of China ( PRC ), but relations quickly turned hostile because of the war in Korea. In 1951 the United Kingdom joined in a U.S.-led embargo on the sale to China of goods of strategic importance. In 1952 Lord Boyd-Orr ( 1880–1971 ), the...

Korea-China Relations

Korea-China Relations   Reference library

Thomas DOLAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...United States as China’s greatest source of foreign direct investment ( FDI ). After the collapse of the Soviet Union, South Korea’s post–Cold War international relations have been based less on reliance on the United States and more on diversification in its relations; China is a player in this diversification. North Korea benefited from the political competition between the Soviet Union and China during the Cold War, playing one against the other in acquiring support. However, the collapse of the Soviet Union and economic liberalization in China have left...

United States–China Relations

United States–China Relations   Reference library

June GRASSO

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...protection against armed attack. U.S.-China relations became inextricably tied to the intensification of the Cold War. U.S. policies were aimed at stopping the spread of Communism, while China policies focused on supporting the “revolutionary struggles” of former colonial peoples. In 1965 People’s Liberation Army commander Lin Biao described the United States as “the most rabid aggressor in human history” in his essay “On People’s War.” Ping-Pong Diplomacy The unlikely champion of opening ties with the PRC was President Richard M. Nixon , once a hard-line...

Guizhou Province

Guizhou Province (2007)   Reference library

Ronald David HILL

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...the provincial capital, Guiyang, a city of a little over a million people (the associated administrative region has a population of 3.2 million). Industrial plants are also located in smaller towns, such as the large steel works at Anshun in the west, built at the height of the Cold War. Provincial gross domestic product per person is amongst the lowest in China. Poverty is widespread, compounded by relatively high levels of dependency and, for China, high birthrates. Some 27 percent of the population is not ethnic Han and thus not subject to the one-child...

Taiwan Economic Miracle

Taiwan Economic Miracle   Reference library

Scott SIMON

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...of the Taiwan economic miracle. Some scholars noted that Taiwan’s phenomenal economic growth actually had begun under Japanese occupation of the island. Some pointed out the influence of U.S. aid on Taiwan, which contributed greatly to Taiwan’s gross domestic product during the Cold War of the 1950s and 1960s and opened up the U.S. market to Taiwanese products. These historical arguments were usually identified in Taiwan with the DPP (Democratic Progressive Party). Some scholars looked beyond the miracle at problems such as the evolution of economic classes,...

♂ Bā Jīn

♂ Bā Jīn (1904–2005)   Reference library

Nicholas A. KALDIS

Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography (Volume 4)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,135 words
Illustration(s):
1

...from his most famous novel, Family ( Jiā 家 ‎), published in 1933 , although Ba Jin's last work of fiction prior to 1949 , Cold Nights ( Hányè 寒夜 ‎, 1947 ), is considered by many to be his best novel. In Family and many of his other works, Ba Jin's characters, themes, and settings reflect the author's passionate commitment to social change, which he advanced through his promotion of anarchism. After the Chinese Civil War and the Communist victory in 1949 , Ba Jin complied with the political demands placed upon writers by the Chinese Communist...

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