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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Cold War

Cold War   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
492 words

...Cold War A term coined by Baruch in 1947 to describe the emerging tensions between the Soviet Union, and the Eastern European states under its influence on the one hand, and the USA and its Western European allies on the other. The tensions had been apparent ever since the division of occupied Germany into four zones and the beginning of Soviet administration in Eastern Europe, and was intensified by the Marshall Plan , which the Soviet Union forbade the countries under its control to accept. The Cold War can be subdivided into three periods: 1. The...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
5,406 words

...] Bibliography Gaddis , John Lewis . The Cold War: A New History . New York: Penguin, 2005. This is one of the most accessible texts for anyone looking for a readable, concise yet thorough treatment of the period. LaFeber, Walter . America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945–2002 . 9th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2004. The classic work on the topic, it has been revised to show connections between the Cold War and current relations between the United States and Russia and the War on Terror. Powaski, Ronald E. The Cold War: The United States and the Soviet Union,...

containment

containment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
58 words

...containment A key foundation of US policy during the Cold War , describing the policy of preventing the extension of Communism by means of regional military pacts (such as NATO , SEATO , ANZUS , or CENTO ), clandestine operations (notably through the CIA ), nuclear deterrence, and the disbursement of overseas aid and...

brinkmanship

brinkmanship   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
84 words

...brinkmanship A term first employed by Dulles to describe the Cold War strategy employed by both superpowers at varying times after 1945 of confronting the opponent power even at the risk of war (‘going to the brink’) when national interests were at stake. The strategy was most famously employed during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 , but the danger of thermonuclear war implicit in the policy was thereafter recognized by the Kennedy administration. Both Kennedy and his successors resiled from the...

Potsdam Conference

Potsdam Conference   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
385 words

...of the Polish-German border, and renewal of Soviet guarantees to enter the war against Japan, the conference left many unresolved issues in Europe and Asia that became Cold War focal points. [ See also Cold War and World War II . ] Bibliography Alperovitz, Gar . Atomic Diplomacy: Hiroshima and Potsdam . Rev. ed. New York: Penguin, 1985. Revisionist analysis that argues that assertive American diplomacy led to the confrontation with the Soviet Union. Feis, Herbert . Between War and Peace: The Potsdam Conference . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University...

Rankin, Jeanette

Rankin, Jeanette (11 June 1880)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
148 words

...been introduced. Her pacifism in World War I ensured her defeat in the 1918 elections, but she came to be seen as a prophet of isolationism . She returned to Congress in 1940 , having maintained her prominence by a variety of means associated with pacifist and feminist groups throughout the 1930s. The only dissenter in the war vote in 1941 , she lost her seat in 1942 and disappeared from public significance for the duration of World War II. She re-emerged as a vocal critic of the Truman Doctrine and the Cold War...

U-2 Incident

U-2 Incident   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
82 words

...U-2 Incident On 1 May 1960 a US high-altitude Lockheed U-2 spy plane was shot down by Soviet forces over Soviet territory, and its pilot Gary Powers taken prisoner. It worsened already tense relations between the USSR and the USA at a time when the Cold War was at its peak. The USA has been careful to assert that no subsequent flights over the USSR took place. Powers was exchanged for a Soviet spy in February 1962 . See Eisenhower, Dwight...

CENTO

CENTO   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
87 words

...to power in Iraq. It included the UK, Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan, and accorded the US observer status. Its primary function was to provide a link between the Asian SEATO and the European NATO military alliances in defence against Soviet expansionism in the context of the Cold War . It was dissolved in 1979 , following the Iranian...

non-alignment

non-alignment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
81 words

...non-alignment A principle during the Cold War among states anxious not to align themselves with either the USA or the USSR. Most prominent of these was India, but many countries of south-east Asia and Africa took part in the movement. Despite their best efforts to steer a middle course between the two superpowers, the impact of non-alignment was negligible owing to the economic, religious, and political disparity among its member states, which made a common stance difficult. See Bandung...

Bandung Conference

Bandung Conference (17 Apr. 1955)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
70 words

...Bandung Conference ( 17 Apr. 1955 ) The first international conference of independent Asian and African countries held in the Indonesian city of Bandung, which called for the neutrality of the lesser developed countries in the current Cold War , in the interest of world peace. It inaugurated the non‐alignment movement, whose principal tenets were non‐aggression, respect for sovereignty, non‐interference in other countries' internal affairs, equality, and peaceful...

Hukbalahap (‘Huk’) movement

Hukbalahap (‘Huk’) movement ((Philippines))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
215 words

...elected ( April 1946 ), he retreated to the jungle and began terrorist activities against the great estates as head of the People's Liberation Army ( PLA ). By 1950 the PLA was waging more or less open war against the landlord elite. Although only loosely allied to the Philippine Communist Party, against the background of the Cold War and the Korean War , the PLA was increasingly combated with US help as a Communist revolt. Taruc surrendered in 1954 , thanks partly to the persuasion of young Benigno Aquino...

Civil War

Civil War   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,379 words

...the German and Italian states. In Switzerland three years earlier ( 1845 ) a civil war broke out between Catholic and Protestant cantons, but a federal constitution was instituted in 1848 . Extreme ideologies like communism (Marx's Communist Manifesto , 1848 ) and its refutation, fascism, spawned several insurgencies and civil wars (Russian Civil War, 1918–1920 ; Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939 ; first Chinese Civil War, 1928–1937 ) and contributed to the larger Cold War. Defined as a period of intense conflict, without direct military engagement, between...

Berlin Wall

Berlin Wall   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
461 words
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1

...toward the wall. It was breached that night and celebrations, televised worldwide, took place along its length. Given the Berlin Wall's earlier role, its fall marked the symbolic end of the Cold War. [ See also Berlin and Cold War . ] Bibliography Schweiger, Peter , ed. The Fall of the Berlin Wall: Reassessing the Causes and Consequences of the End of the Cold War . Palo Alto, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 2000. Slusser, Robert M. The Berlin Crisis of 1961: Soviet-American Relations and the Struggle for Power in the Kremlin, June–November, 1961 ....

détente

détente   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
112 words

...détente A term generally used to describe the decline of tensions between two countries or parties. In particular, it describes the second phase of the Cold War from 1962 until 1979 , when the USA and the USSR established better diplomatic relations and direct lines of communication. Serious attempts were made at disarmament . In particular, Brandt 's Ostpolitik ( German question ) as well as the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, beginning with the Helsinki Conference , provided for enhanced human rights within Eastern Europe. They...

Desegregation

Desegregation   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
874 words

...to education, desegregation could not happen quickly enough. A temporary letup in the Cold War in the late 1950s opened the door for African Americans to renew their push for social equality in 1960 . The subsequent desegregation of Birmingham, Alabama—“America's Johannesburg”—represented a critical moment in the history of desegregation in the United States, and this event became combined with the intensification of the Cold War, American participation in the war in Vietnam, and the Cuban Missile Crisis ( 1962 ), as images of African American...

Inter‐American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance

Inter‐American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Sept. 1947)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
168 words

...Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance ( Rio de Janeiro Treaty ) ( Sept. 1947 ) A security agreement signed and ratified by all of the 21 American republics, which formalized and extended the informal security pact against Germany and Japan during World War II in response to the emerging Cold War . A pact against aggression from outside and within the alliance, it was regarded by most members as a multilateral mechanism for the maintenance of peace and stability across the region. The US, however, considered this to be another bloc against the spread of...

Paris Peace Treaties

Paris Peace Treaties (10 Feb. 1947)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
189 words

...1940 , was confirmed. Hungary remained limited to its frontiers of the Treaty of Trianon . Finally, Finland had to cede Petsamo to the Soviet Union. A peace treaty with Austria was not concluded until 1955 , while bitter Allied disputes over the division of Germany during the Cold War prevented the conclusion of a peace treaty with Germany until German reunification in 1990...

War

War   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,763 words

...to Europe, but transitioned into the Cold War, an ideological contest between the victors that exhibited many characteristics of total war. Technology and War. Because wars, and preparation for war, can make tremendous demands on societies, they frequently spur technological development. This pattern is most evident in weapons technologies, where governments have often invested enormous sums of money in efforts to build new weapons systems. The gargantuan Anglo-American effort to build an atomic bomb during World War II is the most famous example, but hardly...

Truman Doctrine

Truman Doctrine   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
583 words

...at home and broad allied support abroad. [ See also Bush Doctrine ; Cold War ; Marshall Plan ; North Atlantic Treaty Organization ; and United States, subentry American Foreign Policy . ] Bibliography Hogan, Michael J. A Cross of Iron: Harry S. Truman and the Origins of the National Security State, 1945–1954 . Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Leffler, Melvyn P. A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1992. Gary Helm...

Korean War

Korean War (1950–3)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
498 words

...April, the war developed into a stalemate. Outcomes After protracted negotiations involving the position of the future demarcation line and the exchange of prisoners of war, an armistice was signed on 27 July 1953 , after Stalin 's death had enabled a slight relaxation of the Cold War. A new demarcation line came into effect, which led to territorial gains for South Korea, though the North gained some fertile lands in the west. The demarcation line was engulfed in a demilitarized zone for 2 km (1.5 miles) on either side, policed by the UN. The war cost the...

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