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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...over what many Churchmen believed was the sole province of the Church. Victorian Christians looked back on the worldly, unreformed churches of the eighteenth century with palpable disdain. They were even more scornful of the rationalism of that century, which struck them as cold and inimical to a properly aesthetic and emotional approach to religion. Denominational lines in Old Dissent had hardened, while a gradual resurgence of Anglican exclusiveness and a revival of patristic learning gave new life to the long-isolated High Church party. Preachers and...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,432 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Wordsworth's. In Prometheus Unbound ( 1820 ) he wants to reveal something for which nature and language itself can only provide veils and suggestions. Life of Life! thy lips enkindle  With their love the breath between them; And thy smiles before they dwindle  Make the cold air fire; then screen them In those looks, where whoso gazes Faints, entangled in their mazes. Synaesthesia dominates the great lyric which these lines initiate. A confusion of the senses signals the presence of a spiritual voice ‘IN THE AIR, singing’, as the stage direction in...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...exhibition had lessened with its novelty, and the change is clearly discernible in the tone of its reviews. Adulation for the nature of the scheme gave way to colder evaluations of the performances themselves. Boydell's firm ran into financial difficulties over the protracted publication of the Shakespeare edition, coupled with the collapse of the lucrative foreign print market as a result of the *war [2] . An Act of Parliament was passed in 1804 to allow Boydell to dispose of the paintings by lottery, with the contents of the Gallery offered as first...

Burdett, Sir Francis

Burdett, Sir Francis (1770–1844)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...reformer . The most prominent radical reformer of the Napoleonic war years, he reappropriated much of the traditional popular association between *patriotism and political opposition which had been lost in the 1790s. Of aristocratic background and education, Burdett made a name for himself after 1803 as a political reformer independent of the *Whigs , who was willing to work with and campaign for radical state prisoners, former Irish rebels, and mutineers incarcerated in Cold Bath Fields prison [ see *prisons ]. After winning the relatively...

Raemond, Florimond De

Raemond, Florimond De (1540–1601)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
604 words

...since truth was fought for on two fronts: scriptural and historical. Catholic practice was not always provable by scripture, so both history and tradition were used to justify many church practices. Raemond defended Catholic interpretation on both fronts, a cold warrior for his faith when the religious wars in France had not yet cooled. Boase, Alan . The Fortunes of Montaigne . Reprint, New York, 1970. Busch, Martin . Florimond de Raemond (vers 1540–1601) et l'Anabaptisme . Ph.D. diss., Université des Sciences Humaines, Faculté de Théologie Protestante,...

Henry II of France

Henry II of France (1519–1559)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
698 words

...'s cousin, as part of a Franco-papal alliance. Henry never grew to love his wife but found emotional fulfillment with Diane de Poitiers , twenty years his senior, who remained his mistress to his death. In 1536 Henry's older brother died, and he became Dauphin. Despite the coldness in the relationship between father and son, Francis provided Henry a good training in the affairs of state. When Henry ascended the throne in 1547 , he quickly made a number of changes in the system of governance, in particular creating the offices of the four secretaries of...

Pitt, William, the younger

Pitt, William, the younger (1759–1806)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... in his early, radical lectures. In an era which counted * Burke , Canning , Fox , and * Sheridan among its parliamentary luminaries, Pitt had the unusual distinction of leaving no artistic, historical, literary, or philosophical traces. Although he was accused of personal coldness, the press made much of Pitt's over-fondness for the bottle and boon companions; he was also the victim of homophobic innuendoes. Long after Pitt's death these images jostled with those presented by his Tory admirers, to whom he was an icon. ...

Philip II of Spain

Philip II of Spain (1527–1598)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,864 words

...was supervised by Charles V and reflected Charles's Christian humanist and chivalric education, experience of statecraft, and hostility toward Protestantism. Philip's mother and Castilian tutors inculcated in Philip the reserved demeanor that contemporaries often perceived as cold arrogance; and Charles, who was absent for much of Philip's boyhood, failed to temper Philip's character with his own ability to be affable. Philip proved an affectionate son, brother, and father. He maintained close bonds with his two sisters, Maria ( 1529–1603 ; married Emperor...

Wars of Religion

Wars of Religion   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,874 words

...Major , however, has argued that the nobility could readily adapt to the price rise and that, if some noble houses suffered economically, it was their expenditures on the civil wars that was the cause (“Noble Income and Inflation and the Wars of Religion in France,” American Historical Review 86 ( 1981 ), 21–48). If the issue of economic motives for noble involvement in the wars remains uncertain, the sincerity of many noble conversions to Calvinism does not. Nancy Roelker has shown the deep sincerity of many noblewomen in old families, such as the La...

Wistar, Caspar

Wistar, Caspar (1761–1818)   Reference library

Keith Thomson

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...collection of fossil mammal remains, including mastodons, from Big Bone Lick in (present-day Kentucky), describing two new species. The flowering vine Wisteria was named for him by the botanist Thomas Nuttall. Bibliography “Experiments and Observations on Evaporation in Cold Air,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 3 (1793): 125–33. “A Description of the Bones Deposited by the President in the Museum of the Society, and Represented in the Annexed Plates,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 4 (1799): 526–31. “Experiments...

Kuhn, Adam

Kuhn, Adam (1741–1817)   Reference library

Deborah C. Brunton

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...on the therapeutic use of cold baths. He returned to Philadelphia in January 1768 . Shortly thereafter, he joined the staff of America’s first medical school at the College of Philadelphia. The school had been founded in 1765 by John Morgan; and for the first two years Morgan and William Shippen offered a range of courses. Kuhn applied for and was appointed to the chair of materia medica and botany. While his materia medica courses were successful, the courses in botany failed to attract students and were dropped. The war interrupted Kuhn’s teaching...

Bard, Samuel

Bard, Samuel (1742–1821)   Reference library

Marynita Anderson

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...raised medical standards and improved health conditions for many in New York City and beyond. Bibliography An Enquiry into the Nature, Cause and Cure, of the Angina Suffocativa, or, Sore Throat Distemper (New York, 1771). An Attempt to Explain and Justify the Use of Cold in Uterine Hemorrhagies (New York, 1771). Compendium of the Theory and Practice of Midwifery (New York, 1807). A Guide for Young Shepherds (New York, 1811). Further Reading Anderson, Marynita . Physician Heal Thyself, Medical Practitioners of Eighteenth-Century New York...

Kepler, Johannes

Kepler, Johannes (1571–1630)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
935 words

...finished his theology degree, he was sent to teach mathematics in the Protestant seminary in Graz. He was also district mathematician, requiring that he write yearly calendars for which he predicted the weather and upcoming events through astrology. He correctly forecast a bitter cold and a Turkish invasion in his first calendar for 1596 . Kepler was always ambivalent about astrology; nevertheless, his success gave him a privileged position in a Catholic stronghold. In Graz Kepler wrote his first book, Mysterium cosmographicum (The Secret of the Universe),...

Carnival

Carnival   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,147 words

...was one of the major festivals of sixteenth-century Europe, especially in the Mediterranean world. (In colder areas, spring and summer festivals were more important and took similar forms.) The carnival season, which began in late December but generally reached its climax in the week culminating on Shrove Tuesday, was an officially tolerated time of license. The most popular activities included eating meat and drinking alcohol on the grandest possible scale, wearing masks (or complete fancy dress), pursuing members of the opposite sex; engaging in...

Henry IV of France

Henry IV of France (1553–1610)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,263 words

...at the prospect of living and dying in the Catholic church. At first glance, his foreign policy seemed to contradict this affinity for Catholicism. He remained obdurately opposed to the Habsburg empire, for having made peace with Spain in 1598 , he went over to a sort of “cold war” with that power. In contrast, he maintained good relations with England, with the United Provinces, and with the Protestant German princes. It would be a mistake, however, to imagine that these political alignments derived from religious sympathies. In fact, his foreign policy...

Franklin, Benjamin

Franklin, Benjamin (1706–90)   Reference library

E. Philip Krider

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...London, Franklin taught swimming and almost became a fulltime swimming instructor. Later he wrote instructions on learning how to swim, about “The Art of procuring Pleasant Dreams,” the causes and cures of the common cold, on vaccination against smallpox, and on treatment for the gout. He even proposed a novel way of bathing—sitting naked in cold air while he read or wrote letters in the early morning. In 1752 , Franklin designed a flexible catheter to help treat his brother’s kidney stones, an instrument that was the first of its kind in America, and he was...

Elizabethan Settlement

Elizabethan Settlement   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,868 words

...in the 1950s Sir John Neale created an interpretation that told the story in Cold War terms. Since the late 1970s historians have moved away from sectarian or political interpretations, concentrating on how the settlement was actually created in Parliament in order to understand what its creators were attempting to achieve. Elizabeth's intentions in the settlement are obscure because she was attempting to avoid polarization that, she feared, would set off a religious civil war in England. She began moving the nation toward Protestantism from the first days...

Clerical Vestments

Clerical Vestments   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,237 words

...liturgical vestments. John Chrysostom (344/354–407), for example, rejected the use of luxurious vestments at the expense of caring for the poor. He asked how one could honor Christ in the liturgy in silk vestments while ignoring him on the street where he was perishing from the cold ( Commentary on Matthew , Homily 50). Liturgical vestments were given ever new allegorical interpretations reflecting salvation history ( Rabanus Maurus [780–856] and Amalar of Metz [775–850]). These writers made connections between the individual vestments the virtues that were...

Melanchthon, Philipp

Melanchthon, Philipp (1497–1560)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
3,386 words

...where his friend Camerarius had worked since 1541 , as well as with the government in Dresden regarding the formation of an educational system for electoral Saxony, led him again in the spring of 1560 to an examination of candidates held in Leipzig. On the trip he caught a cold from which he died in Wittenberg on 19 April. He was laid to rest next to Luther in the castle church. Melanchthon's historical significance may chiefly be seen in his recognition of the problem of the relation between humanism and the Reformation (that is, the Greco-Roman and...

Adams, John

Adams, John (1735–1826)   Reference library

Richard Alan Ryerson

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...witnessed, but not before the majority of the parish endorsed his liberal theology and their right to hear it. Harvard College in the 1750s also tilted toward the Arminian view of salvation. The faculty emphatically rejected the orthodox Calvinism of the Great Awakening and gave a cold shoulder to Britain’s visiting revivalist preacher, George Whitefield. And while Adams’s brief diary entries of 1756 suggest that several of the men in Worcester and other eastern and central Massachusetts towns with whom he discussed religion were more critical of Mayhew’s...

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