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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

wolf

wolf   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
345 words

...in Sicily , extermination dates from Frederick II (early 13th c.). But except in islands, where the wolf population could not be reinforced from outside, wolves proved resistant to clearances , hunting , trapping, poison, etc. Whenever man weakened (crises, famines , wars, severe cold), the wolf would come out of his forest refuge; from 1428 to 1438 wolves even entered Paris , unearthing corpses and devouring women and children. The great she-wolves described at the paying of bounties in “English” Normandy had five embryos instead of three....

Philip IV the Fair

Philip IV the Fair (1268–1314)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
534 words

...a realism and a dogmatism that reinforced the activities of his advisers, trained, like the celebrated Nogaret, in the cold school of law. Wholly intent on the affirmation of the State and royal sovereignty (the formula “the king is emperor in his realm” dates from this time), he intended to break the resistance of those who still clung to the powers of the past: the great fiefs like Flanders , against which he waged an interminable war, inaugurated by the shattering defeat of Courtrai ( 1302 ); the papal theocracy represented by Boniface VIII ; to the...

stalls

stalls   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
750 words

...night, recalling Psalm 119, 164: “Seven times a day do I praise you”. This rhythm received its finished form with monasticism ; monks, with groups of canons and religious, were soon the only ones to celebrate the whole of the divine office in common. This office, long and in cold churches, caused fatigue; composed largely of psalms , it implied alternate chanting. The stalls were to ensure the fusion of voices and palliate the discomfort somewhat. They usually consisted of two rows on each side of the choir; the outer row, raised, had the high stalls....

Hospital, Hospice

Hospital, Hospice   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,345 words
Illustration(s):
1

...attentive solicitude of the hospital personnel. Choice and regular food , warmth of a room provided with a chimney, therapy founded on a traditional plant-based pharmacopeia: the minimal conditions came together to procure a temporary solace to these beings suffering mainly from cold and chronic undernourishment. Hospitals remained powerless in the face of severe illnesses: admittedly they could appeal to the services of a local surgeon or doctor, but most of the time it was better to trust to divine mercy and the intercession of the healing saints. The...

Trieste

Trieste  

The only major port of Austria‐Hungary, it had been part of Austrian territory almost continuously since 1382. It was claimed by Italy and became a central focus for irredentism. After World War I it ...
Greenland

Greenland  

The world's largest island, but not very greenTwo-thirds of Greenland lies within the Arctic Circle and most of the territory is covered by an ice cap up to eight kilometres thick and holding 10% of ...
Climate

Climate   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
411 words

...(including Thrace), but Bulgaria was considered by the Byz. to be a region that produced little fruit. Grain grew everywhere; the predominance of wheat in Asia Minor and of barley in the Balkans depended more on soil than on temperature. The plateaus (esp. Anatolia), with their cold winter nights and shortage of water, were best for cattle and flocks of sheep and goats, while the contrasts between lowland and highland contributed to the development of transhumance . Special climatic regions were the hinterland of the Black Sea, the Caucasus and the Armenian...

famine

famine   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
484 words

...in the Frankish empire in 792–3 , which led *Charlemagne to commission the * Capitulare de villis ordinance, which ordered the best managerial practices on all imperial *estates to avoid the repetition of this disaster. Famine returned in 805–6 because of prolonged cold weather, then in 843 , 868 , 873–4 , and in 915 and 919 on the Iberian Peninsula, and this list goes on, covering every century. Widespread famine is, however, reported only for the years 1100 , 1125–6 , 1145–7 , 1195–8 , then again in 1225–6 , 1243 (resulting from...

demography and population

demography and population   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
886 words

...crafts and services. The cities drew most immigrants from a radius of 20 km of the town walls. As population became insupportably high, the rate of demographic growth slowed. The wars of the late MA caused serious population decline. More importantly from a structural perspective, the 1290s began a period of violent short-term climate fluctuations, but long term of longer and colder winters. *Famines and localized epidemics had lowered population significantly even before the *Black Death struck in 1348 . Plagues recurred at intervals of three to ten...

Fur

Fur   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
671 words

...as clothing ; they are distinct from skins of leather, feathers, Parchment or wool (except light skins with very fine lambswool, or kids᾽ hair). While the early German Middle Ages , up to the time of Charlemagne , traditionally used furs as protection from the damp cold or in war, the influence of luxury, not so much Byzantine as Islamic, gained on “feudal” society, mainly between the 13th and the early 15th century. “Domestic” skins broadly predominated, especially in rural areas, but in the Mediterranean world stillborn lambs (or killed very young)...

public order

public order   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
522 words

...were often willing to allow private settlement of most *disputes . Since evidence was seldom used to determine guilt or innocence for violent crimes, God, through the *ordeal , was increasingly called on as a guarantor of justice and public order . The various types of ordeal (cold water, red-hot iron, or trial by *battle ) all operated to provide indications of the guilt or innocence of accused persons. From the 11th century onward, the role of the civil ruler as the protector of public order was given a theoretical underpinning by canon *law ’s...

crime and criminality

crime and criminality   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
768 words

...of public peace through such constants of urban life as the *hue-and-cry and the night watchman. With the decades of *plague , war, and public unrest that the 14th century brought in its wake, societies across Europe began to fear the existence of an autonomous criminal ‘underworld’ that no government could control. This perception was reinforced by the ravages of *mercenary armies as well as burgeoning civil wars in both France and England. Royal governments attempted to re-establish ‘social control’ by scapegoating *homosexuals , gamblers, ...

maps, cartography, and cosmography

maps, cartography, and cosmography   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,111 words
Illustration(s):
1

...state expressly. 2. Climatic and zone maps This is made even clearer in two other types of map, namely climatic maps and zone- or hemispherical maps. The latter show the then western hemisphere (the eastern was thought to be covered mainly by oceans) divided into five zones: two cold uninhabitable ones at the poles, two temperate ones in the centre of the northern and southern hemispheres, and a torrid, uninhabitable zone around the equator, usually thought to be taken up by an equatorial sea. Only the northern temperate zone is then divided, similar to the...

geography

geography   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,455 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the north or south, unlike most other medieval maps. At the north and south extremes are frigid zones, followed by temperate zones, and then at the centre, on either side of the great Ocean river, are the torrid zones. The frigid zones were uninhabitable on account of cold, and the torrid uncrossable on account of heat. The northern temperate zone was considered to be the region inhabited by humans, and the southern was thought to be occupied by the Antipodeans. In the 12th and 13th centuries a far more detailed variety of the T-O rose to...

Flamboyant style

Flamboyant style   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,928 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The inventiveness and whimsy of Flamboyant are expressed particularly forcefully in liturgical furniture (tombs, screens, etc) and in exterior articulation. At the church of Brou, Bourg-en-Bresse, the fantasy of design of the choir-screen, balustrade, and tombs contrasts with the cold rationality of the overall interior, with its system of continuous mouldings. The choir-screen of La Madeleine, Troyes, provides an example of a small-scale structure that seems to defy the laws of gravity, since the uprights that divide it into three bays do not rest on the...

crusades

crusades   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,079 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Alexius I. The crusaders then marched across Anatolia to *Antioch . Given the extraordinary fortifications of the city, the crusaders’ only option was to starve out the defenders. However, it was the crusaders themselves who found themselves disastrously short on provisions. A cold winter added to their problems, leading to deaths by disease and starvation. Bohemond, however, was able to gain entry into Antioch by bribery. Thus, on 4 June 1098 , the crusaders captured Antioch. After much argument, it was decided that Bohemond would remain to defend Antioch...

Hall

Hall   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...hall long remained the central feature of medieval domestic planning in northern parts of Europe with cold winters, and where the political situation was sufficiently settled to permit lords and kings to move out of stone castles, notably in England. The Mediterranean world, both Christian and Islamic, with a warmer climate and the lingering remnants of a Classical Roman lifestyle, had little use for such protected, semi-barbaric arrangements. Even in war-torn Italy, the hall, where present, was purely for ceremonial or official business, whether in ducal or...

Byzantium, History of

Byzantium, History of   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
9,654 words
Illustration(s):
6

...were severely shaken by usurpers and civil war. Andronikos II fought for seven years ( 1321–28 ) against his grandson Andronikos III before abdicating; the youthful John V Palaiologos was challenged by John VI Kantakouzenos , who gained power for seven years after the Civil War of 1341–47 . These civil wars sapped the strength of the empire, as a result of the devastation of agricultural land and the Byz. use of declining resources to fight each other instead of the common enemy. The Civil War of 1341–47 esp. revealed the hostility of the...

Germany, Federal Republic of

Germany, Federal Republic of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
28,041 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Unfortunately, it later became clear that both individuals and institutions in the West received works of art that slipped through the post-war relocation net. In the section of Germany controlled by Russian troops, the treatment of discovered collections was not so forthright. Major works of art from German museums were transferred to Moscow, according to the Soviet authorities, to be cleaned. As the Cold War progressed, however, the USSR returned these German collections to the restored East German museums, although this too seems to have been in parts...

France, Republic of

France, Republic of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
29,338 words
Illustration(s):
6

...Death. From 1337 to 1453 France was involved in the Hundred Years War with England. This conflict eventually led to the expulsion of the English from most of France. After the war’s end the French kings concentrated on centralizing power and enhancing their own prestige. In the early 16th century France reached a new level of cultural achievement under Francis I ( reg 1515–47 ), who brought from Italy leading Renaissance artists. The second half of the century was marred by the Wars of Religion (from 1562 ), concluding with the Edict of Nantes ( 1598...

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