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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Elkesaites

Elkesaites   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...“The consumptive are also to baptize themselves in cold water forty times in seven days, and likewise also those possessed by demons” (Hippolytus). The Elkesaites thus seem to have combined an initiatory rite of baptism with the practice of repeated washings, as did (in their own way) the community of Qumran (see Rule of the Community from Cave 1 at Qumran [1QS] and the Damascus Document [CD]). According to Josephus, the Essenes bathed themselves daily and did so “in cold water” ( The Jewish War 2.129). [See Josephus Flavius .] [See also ...

Licinius

Licinius   Reference library

Oliver Nicholson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Maxentius at Rome on 28 October 312 Licinius found himself encircled and so had to choose between alliance with Constantine I , the only emperor to the West, and Maximinus Daza, the only surviving emperor to the East. He chose Constantine, crossed the Alps in the depths of a cold winter (his horses developed tetanus), and married Constantine’s sister Constantia at Milan in February 313 . He then turned East and defeated Maximinus Daza, an enthusiastic persecutor of Christians, who committed suicide at Tarsus . On 13 June 313 at Nicomedia ...

Therapeutae

Therapeutae   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Is Free 86; The Jewish War 2.128–132): Therapeutae have a similar institution for Sabbath and Pentecost ( Life 36, 40, 81). Both groups love frugality ( Every Good Man Is Free 77; Apol. 11; The Jewish War 2.130, 133; Life 37) and live celibate lives ( Apol. 14–17; The Jewish War 2.121; Antiquities 18.21; Life 68). Finally, Torah study is the first love of both groups ( Every Good Man Is Free 88; The Jewish War 145; Life 25, 28, 75). Josephus, not Philo, tells how Essenes don a white garment to eat ( The Jewish War 2.131), as do the...

Jordanes

Jordanes   Reference library

Peter Heather

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...others had suggested Britain or Thule instead. In addition, most commentators find that any attempt to trace back the archaeological trail left by the Goths northwards from north of the Black Sea, where they are securely attested in the later 3rd and 4th centuries , goes cold in northern Poland, with no convincing evidence of any earlier Scandinavian phase. Also, contemporary Roman histories other than Jordanes are episodic in nature, but they demonstrate both that the Goths were far from united prior to the arrival of the Huns , and that the...

Baths and Baptism

Baths and Baptism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...linen cloths, bathe their bodies in cold water. After this purification, they assemble in a private apartment which none of the uninitiated is permitted to enter, pure now themselves, they repair to the refectory, as to some sacred shrine” ( The Jewish War 2.129). Also in the regulations for admission to the community, the laws of purity play a crucial role: After a year of probation the candidate “is brought into closer touch with the rule and is allowed to share the purer kind of water for purification” ( The Jewish War 2.138). It has often been observed...

Ireland

Ireland   Reference library

Edel Bhreathnach

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...used of those in western Scotland ( Bede , HE I, 1). The influence of earlier classical observations on Ireland, such as those made by Julius Caesar ( Gallic War , V, 13) or Strabo ( Geography , IV, 5, 4), continued to be felt into Late Antiquity. According to these descriptions, Ireland was an island in Ocean on the periphery of the habitable world and barely habitable because it was constantly cold (e.g. ‘glacialis Ierne’: Claudian , De IV Consolatu Honorii 33), a belief that was reinforced by the association of the name Hibernia with the Latin...

῾Ein-Gedi

῾Ein-Gedi   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...and Byzantine periods Tell Goren became an area of cultivated terraces. The built-up area of that period was northeast of Tell Goren; a bathhouse from the period 70–132 ce was excavated there. It included the typical elements of a Roman bath set in a row: a frigidarium (cold room), a tepidarium (warm room), a caldarium (hot room), and a furnace, as well as numerous pools. A synagogue was excavated some 300 meters (984 feet) northeast of Tell Goren. [See Synagogues .] In Stratum III B (third century ce ) it was a simple prayer hall with two...

Dead Sea

Dead Sea   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...broad plains and valleys bordering the southeastern shores of the sea, including every period from Paleolithic flint scatters (above the level of Lake Lisan which was present at the time) to modern times. Except for Stone Age settlements, when the climate was probably wetter and colder (at least during global glacial periods), most inhabitants probably desired the economic advantages of year-round irrigation agriculture. Especially significant were the many small settlements of almost every period around the perennial streams at Wadi Isal, Safi (Wadi Hasa) and...

Mysticism

Mysticism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...“because the holy angels are in its midst” (Damascus Document CD xv.15–17, Rule of the Congregation 1Q28a ii.3–9; cf. War Scroll, 1QM vii.3–7). [See War Scroll .] This language is dependent upon Leviticus 21.16–21 , which refers to qualifications for priestly service in the sacrificial cult. A somewhat more vivid account of access to the heavens is found in a hymn of self-glorification (War Scroll a 4Q491), part of a copy of the War Scroll from Cave 4 at Qumran. In this text the speaker asserts that he has been given “a mighty throne in the council of...

Heaven

Heaven   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...to heaven, specifically, to the palace that contains the throne of God. [See Throne .] This heavenly structure consists of two rooms, the second more splendid than the first. The outer room is described numinously through the use of contradictory images. It is “hot as fire and cold as snow,” constructed of what appears to be hailstones and snow but also of burning fire. Cosmological and meteorological images are invoked to describe the roof of the structure, which is like the path of the stars with lightning flashing in it. Images of cherubim, also described...

Metal Utensils

Metal Utensils   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...in the shape of a modern turieh is reported from Wadi Murabba῾at. An S-shaped hook found in the Cave of the Letters was used for hanging meat or for moving a door bolt and must have been very convenient for hauling baskets and jars up to the cave. A hook from Masada was heavily cold worked, only then could it bear a heavy load. Fine bronze and iron tools include needles, crochet hooks, and awls from several caves, as well as some surgical instruments, including a lancet, spatulae, and spoons from Murabba῾at Cave 4. An iron peg from Masada, forged from wrought...

Death

Death   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

... ᾽bd , (“perish”); nkh , (“smite”); ḥll , (“pierce”); tmm , (“be complete”) or metaphorically shkb (“sleep”), although it is even richer in the non-Essene texts with yshn (“sleep”), lwn (“lodge”). However, only the Qumran texts use gp᾽ for the wicked who fall stone cold into Hell, and the image of the bridge (Messianic Apocalypse 4Q521 5.ii). These words have to be related to the noun Death as the “return to dust” of the creature made of clay, and to the abstract terms Sheol, Abaddon, abyss, darkness, punishments, extermination , (as opposed...

Masada

Masada   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...the abyss surrounding the cliff. Josephus states that a number of the defenders of Masada committed suicide on the night before the conquering of the fortress following the burning of the inner wall ( The Jewish War 7.389–406). The words that Josephus put into the mouths of Agrippa II ( The Jewish War 2.345–401) and Eleazar ben Ya᾽ir ( The Jewish War 7.323–388) are a historical convention of the time, calculated to give the reader background material and express the historian's point of view. Therefore, we cannot accept Josephus's description as a...

Textiles

Textiles   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...spinning tools found in the Judean Desert caves and in Masada indicate that spinning was a household activity practiced by women of all classes. Dyeing. Every fiber has to be washed and bleached before dyeing, otherwise the dye will not adhere to it. The linen is first soaked in cold water, then boiled in a vat with potash or other alkaline plants, rinsed in flowing water, dried, and bleached in the sun. Only blue dye was used in the linen textiles of Qumran. The threads were dyed with indigo extracted from the leaves of the plant Isatis tinctoria L . (woad),...

Early Dynastic Period

Early Dynastic Period   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...tissue for all early states, and state religions provided efficient methods to get the population to pay taxes, serve in wars, and in general act as citizens of a nation: people acted in these socially constructive ways out of a sense of duty, not out of coercion. This is not to suggest that Aha or other Egyptian pharaohs cynically manipulated their subjects by inventing a religion; Aha, for example, almost certainly did not coldly calculate the costs/benefits ratio of raising the status of Sobek and the Apis bull in a cynical ploy to solidify his power....

New Kingdom

New Kingdom   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

.... The earlier nineteenth dynasty continued to be dominated by reactions to the events of the Amarna period: damage inflicted on the orthodox temples by Akhenaten's iconoclasts was still being repaired under Sety I and Ramesses II; and the alternating pattern of hot and cold war with the Hittites continued. Although defections from the Egyptian empire are now seen as less extensive than was earlier believed— being confined to the northern Syrian territories of Ugarit, Amurru, and Kadesh—imperial government in Asia was firmer and less tolerant than...

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