You are looking at 1-20 of 63 entries  for:

  • All: Cold War x
  • Classical studies x
clear all

View:

Overview

Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Licinius

Licinius   Reference library

Oliver Nicholson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Maxentius at Rome on 28 October 312 Licinius found himself encircled and so had to choose between alliance with Constantine I , the only emperor to the West, and Maximinus Daza, the only surviving emperor to the East. He chose Constantine, crossed the Alps in the depths of a cold winter (his horses developed tetanus), and married Constantine’s sister Constantia at Milan in February 313 . He then turned East and defeated Maximinus Daza, an enthusiastic persecutor of Christians, who committed suicide at Tarsus . On 13 June 313 at Nicomedia ...

Jordanes

Jordanes   Reference library

Peter Heather

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...others had suggested Britain or Thule instead. In addition, most commentators find that any attempt to trace back the archaeological trail left by the Goths northwards from north of the Black Sea, where they are securely attested in the later 3rd and 4th centuries , goes cold in northern Poland, with no convincing evidence of any earlier Scandinavian phase. Also, contemporary Roman histories other than Jordanes are episodic in nature, but they demonstrate both that the Goths were far from united prior to the arrival of the Huns , and that the...

Satires

Satires   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
1,532 words

...is concerned with ‘all the activities of people’, quidquid agunt homines . The vices of the age provide the stimulus: ‘indignation prompts my verse’, facit indignatio versum . But it is safe to write only of the dead; at the present time ‘honesty is praised but left out in the cold’, probitas laudatur et alget . Satire 2 is an attack on hypocritical homosexual men who give the appearance of being stern moralists but are immoral in their private lives: ‘no one becomes vicious all at once’, nemo repente fuit turpissimus . Satire 3 is a picture of life at...

Ireland

Ireland   Reference library

Edel Bhreathnach

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...used of those in western Scotland ( Bede , HE I, 1). The influence of earlier classical observations on Ireland, such as those made by Julius Caesar ( Gallic War , V, 13) or Strabo ( Geography , IV, 5, 4), continued to be felt into Late Antiquity. According to these descriptions, Ireland was an island in Ocean on the periphery of the habitable world and barely habitable because it was constantly cold (e.g. ‘glacialis Ierne’: Claudian , De IV Consolatu Honorii 33), a belief that was reinforced by the association of the name Hibernia with the Latin...

Achillēs

Achillēs   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
679 words

... Iliad 9. 308–429 he calls the entire code into question, saying that he would rather live quietly at home than pursue glory in the Trojan War; but it is his ‘heroic’ rage against Agamemnon that has brought him to this point. In his encounter with Lycaon, his sense of common mortality (the fact that Patroclus has died and Achilles himself will die) is a reason, not for sparing his suppliant, but for killing him in cold blood. Finally at Iliad 24, when Priam begs him to release Hector's body, it is human feeling, as well as the gods' command, that makes...

Epirus

Epirus   Reference library

Hammond Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
574 words

...with pass via Metsovo to Thessaly. Three limestone ranges parallel to the coast and the Pindus range enclose narrow valleys and plateaux with good pasture and extensive woods; alluvial plains were formed near Buthrotum, Glycys Limen, and Ambracia. Epirus had a humid climate and cold winters. In terrain and in history it resembled Upper Macedonia. Known in the Iliad ( see homer ) only for the oracle at Dodona , and to Herodotus ( 1 ) for the oracle of the dead at Ephyra , Epirus received Hellenic influence from the Elean colonies in Cassopaea and the...

Thucydides

Thucydides (c.460–400bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
4,406 words
Illustration(s):
1

... among others, especially with the advent of nuclear weapons and the Cold War, and is behind “realist” approaches to international relations in the twenty-first century. The variety and vividness of Thucydides’ analysis, narrative, and speeches lend themselves just as well to illustrating the horrors of war and internal conflict as to explaining their inevitability in human nature. [ See also Herodotus ; Historiography, Greek ; Mantinea, Battle of ; Oratory, Greek ; Peloponnesian Wars ; and Pericles .] Bibliography Works of Thucydides Thucydidis...

Encaustic painting

Encaustic painting   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
675 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Punic wax has given scholars much cause for debate. Pliny described its preparation as follows: yellow beeswax was exposed to the air for some time, then cooked with repeated boilings and additions of sea water and potassium carbonate. The foamy mass was then poured into cold water and afterwards exposed in a basket to the bleaching action of sunlight. However, the actual proportions are not indicated, and it is unclear from this reference whether Punic wax was merely a form of purified beeswax or whether the addition of potassium carbonate actually...

disease

disease   Reference library

J. Robert Sallares

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
663 words
Illustration(s):
1

...observed in cemeteries. Chickenpox, diphtheria, mumps, and whooping cough are all described in connection with attacks on adults, but there is no definite evidence for measles or rubella in antiquity. Cholera was absent. The presence of influenza is uncertain, but the common cold certainly existed. Leprosy was probably endemic in the near east in the bronze age and spread slowly westwards in the Hellenistic period. It probably only occurred sporadically. There is no conclusive evidence for gonorrhoea or syphilis, but some sexually transmitted diseases...

Fronto

Fronto   Quick reference

Leofranc Adrian Holford-Strevens

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
541 words

...philostorgia ), nor even a name for it; Marcus, silent on Fronto's rhetorical tuition, acknowledges that he has learnt from him the hypocrisy of courts and the coldness of Roman patricians (M. Aur. Med. 1. 11). Their own correspondence is marked by extreme displays of affection. A few declamations and fragments of speeches have also survived, as has a draft for a panegyrical history of the Parthian War. Minucius Felix ( Oct. 9. 6–7) quotes a speech alleging that Christian ritual included incest and murder; despite the entire absence of political advice from...

disease

disease   Reference library

J. Robert Sallares

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
681 words

...observed in cemeteries. Chickenpox, diphtheria, mumps, and whooping cough are all described in connection with attacks on adults, but there is no definite evidence for measles or rubella in antiquity. Cholera was absent. The presence of influenza is uncertain, but the common cold certainly existed. Leprosy was probably endemic in the near east in the bronze age and spread slowly westwards in the Hellenistic period. It probably only occurred sporadically. There is no conclusive evidence for gonorrhoea or syphilis, but some sexually transmitted diseases...

Cornelius (RE 157) Fronto, Marcus

Cornelius (RE 157) Fronto, Marcus (c.ad 95–c.166)   Reference library

Leofranc Adrian Holford-Strevens

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
630 words

...nor even a name for it; Marcus, silent on Fronto's rhetorical tuition, acknowledges that he has learnt from him the hypocrisy of courts and the coldness of Roman patricians ( M. Aur. Med. 1. 11). Their own correspondence is effusively affectionate, even erotic in tone. A few declamations and fragments of speeches have also survived, as has a draft for a panegyrical history of the Parthian War. Minucius Felix ( Oct. 9. 6–7) quotes a speech alleging that Christian ritual included incest and murder; despite the entire absence of political...

Italy

Italy   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
577 words

...Italy apart from Trasimene, Fucinus, and water‐filled craters like Albanusmons and Avernus. So Italy's natural products were abundant and varied: olives , various fruits, cereals , timber , etc. The variety is explained chiefly by the climate, which is temperate if not cold in the mountains and north Italy, and warm if not hot in south Italy. Italy contains excellent pasturage; in many districts ranching supplanted agriculture ( see transhumance ). Its seas abound in fish ( see fishing ). During the 8th cent. bc contact was established between...

opera

opera   Reference library

Michael Ewans

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
736 words

...jar, though in both operas the sublime music of the closing pages does much to create an illusion of dramatic unity. In the 20th and 21st cents. opera has continued to draw its inspiration more from Greek myth than from the Romans. Two pre-eminent post-war operas are Tippett’s fatalistic Cold War reworking of the Iliad ( King Priam , 1962 ) and Henze’s The Bassarids ( 1966 ). Auden and Kallman, in their libretto based on The Bacchae , attempted to denounce Dionysus from a Christian perspective, but Henze overwhelmingly opposed this with his...

opera

opera   Reference library

Michael Ewans

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
785 words

...jar, though in both operas the sublime music of the closing pages does much to create an illusion of dramatic unity. In the 20th and 21st cents. opera has continued to draw its inspiration more from Greek myth than from the Romans. Two pre-eminent post-war operas are Tippett's fatalistic Cold War reworking of the Iliad ( King Priam , 1962 ) and Henze's The Bassarids ( 1966 ). Auden and Kallman, in their libretto based on The Bacchae , attempted to denounce Dionysus from a Christian perspective, but Henze overwhelmingly opposed this with his...

Achilles

Achilles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,945 words
Illustration(s):
1

...response offers a passionate critique of the conduct of the war. He articulates a choice presented to him by Thetis; he can die in Troy, having lived a short but glorious life, or he can return home and live a long life without glory. Here he dramatically repudiates the glory offered him in war as inadequate compensation for his life. Iliad 9 introduces a contrast with Odysseus, whose greater tact, cooler intellect, and talent for compromise make him a more rational but also more coldly calculating and dishonest foil for the thoroughly honest but...

agriculture, Greek

agriculture, Greek   Reference library

Michael H. Jameson

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,093 words

...(two- and six-row) and hulled wheat (emmer and einkorn), introduced to the Aegean from the near east in the neolithic period, remained important crops. Naked wheats, especially tetraploid, durum wheat, evolved in the first millennium bc , but hexaploid bread wheat, better in colder climates, was imported from the north shores of the Black Sea. Cultivation with a simple wooden plough (ard), sometimes tipped with iron, to break up the surface of the soil for receiving seeds in autumn, is treated as normal by ancient sources but recently doubts have arisen as...

agriculture, Greek

agriculture, Greek   Reference library

Michael H. Jameson

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,217 words

...(two- and six-row) and hulled wheat (emmer and einkorn), introduced to the Aegean from the near east in the neolithic period, remained important crops. Naked wheats, especially tetraploid, durum wheat, evolved in the first millennium bc , but hexaploid bread wheat, better in colder climates, was imported from the north shores of the Black Sea. Cultivation with a simple wooden plough (ard), sometimes tipped with iron, to break up the surface of the soil for receiving seeds in autumn, is treated as normal by ancient sources but recently doubts have arisen as...

Gymnasium

Gymnasium   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
910 words
Illustration(s):
3

...their bodies, the elaeothesium , where athletes oiled themselves, and the loutron (cold-water washroom). By the 1st century bc many existing gymnasia were being renovated by the addition of elaborate hot-water supply systems, while new ones were built to combine gymnasia and hot baths (Gr. balaneutike ). This undoubtedly reflected both the growing taste for material luxury and the increased popularity of hot-water bathing in the period after the Peloponnesian War ( 431–404 bc ), but it also undermined the gymnasium ’s original function as a place for...

Antigone

Antigone   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
878 words

...relinquishing her marriage to Haemon and her hopes of offspring, Antigone becomes a “bride of death” in order better to pursue the traditionally male prerogative of vindicating a wronged family member. The myth's pertinence to the fall of oppressive regimes and the advent of the Cold War made it popular in the 1940s: Bertolt Brecht adapted Friedrich Hölderlin's German translation ( 1948 ), and Jean Anouilh produced his French Antigone in 1944 . Antigone's role as firebrand has ensured her continued popularity in modern theatrical and cinematographic...

View: