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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

African Military History and Historiography

African Military History and Historiography   Reference library

Timothy Parsons

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
14,535 words

...military interventions led to civil war by upsetting precarious political arrangements left in place by the departing colonial powers. This was the case in the Congo where the Force Publique’s mutiny opened the way for the Katanga succession, which in turn made the country a venue for a proxy war between the Cold War powers. In the Sudan, the Sudanese Defence Force’s mutiny at independence in 1955 reflected deep cultural and religious divisions in the new country and set in motion a civil war that ran hot and cold for decades until the Southern Sudan...

Colonial History and Historiography

Colonial History and Historiography   Reference library

Marie-Albane de Suremain

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,592 words

...œillets (Carnation Revolution) paved the way for the independence of these three countries, as well as that of São Tomé and Príncipe and of the Islands of Cape Verde in 1975 . In view of the staggering chronology, some wars for independence occurred over such a long period of time that they also took on a meaning associated with Cold War conflicts, as in Angola and Mozambique under Portuguese rule. An uprising erupted in Luanda in 1961 . Agostinho Neto’s Portuguese Movimento Popular de Libertação (MPLA; the People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola);...

Emmaus

Emmaus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,311 words

...of marble slabs on cement that, in turn, had been spread on large tiles resting on rows of brick arches (cf. Vitruvius 5.10.2). These combined resilience, so important in this earthquake-prone region, with good air circulation. Three interconnected tanks provided, one each, cold, tepid, and hot water (cf. Vitruvius 5.10.1). Yizhar Hirschfeld ( 1989 ) traced two parallel aqueducts for 1.5 km from ῾Ein Eqed to the town. Their method of construction changed from subterranean tunnels to rock-cut or stone-built channels. The tunnel has an inspection chamber...

Ksar 'Akil

Ksar 'Akil   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,205 words

...'Akil began at least 40,000 years ago, whereas the Levalloiso-Mousterian levels probably date to well before 50,000 bp . This suggests that the Upper Paleolithic may have begun earlier in the Levant than in Europe. Ksar 'Akil was used as a shelter by humans for much of the last cold episode of the Pleistocene. It is known from independent sources, principally deep-sea caves, ice cores, and pollen sequences (for example, Dansgaard and Oeschger, 1989 ; Shackleton and Opdyke, 1976 ; and Wijmstrar, 1969 ), that, although the climate was generally cooler...

Nationalism and Archaeology

Nationalism and Archaeology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,819 words

...archaeology provides both a pedigree and a curriculum vitae for the nation's full-fledged participation in the fraternity of modern sovereign states. While many of the more virulent forms of archaeological nationalism and conflict were abandoned or diluted after the end of the Cold War and its surrogate regional conflicts, the continuing struggle for self-determination by minority ethnic communities throughout the Near East still sometimes finds its symbolic expression in a connection between archaeology and militant nationalism. In this period also, new, more...

North Africa

North Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,610 words
Illustration(s):
6

...the sixth-century bce cothon at Phoenician Kition (Larnaca) on Cyprus. [See Kition .] The date of the military harbor is surprisingly late—no earlier than the second century bce , when Carthage was on the brink of the last Punic War. Less surprisingly, the military harbor was heavily destroyed in the aftermath of that war but was later rebuilt along different lines by the Romans. Tophet. The tophet, or Precinct of Tanit, was near the port but was founded much earlier. There, the Carthaginians practiced child sacrifice, or so charged Greek and Latin...

Environmental History and Historiography

Environmental History and Historiography   Reference library

Emmanuel Kreike

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
19,618 words

...framework offers an important tool for understanding society-environment dynamics. The exercise of power to establish or maintain control over space, resources, and communities has often led to mass violence: slave and cattle raiding, war, imperialism, colonialism, the Cold War, decolonization, as well as resource and civil wars. 80 The destructive impact of violence on society and environment emanated in particular from population flight or forced migrations, which displaced people from their home environments and their environmental infrastructure, directly exposing...

History and Historiography of Science

History and Historiography of Science   Reference library

Helen Tilley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
21,611 words

...the African continent in all its complexity was subjected to more intense (outside) scientific scrutiny than ever before, making it an object of study in its own right. An even more forceful wave of changes occurred in the decades surrounding political decolonization and the Cold War ( 1950–1990 ). This era has yet to receive the systematic attention it is due, though a growing number of scholars have begun to analyze key components. 8 Perspective is everything. The point at which scholars begin a study of the history of science in Africa—that abstraction par...

Film and Video as Historical Sources

Film and Video as Historical Sources   Reference library

Mahir Şaul

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,777 words

...documentary, to support instead the formula “This is a true story” which appears on screen at the start. Peck intended this film for the audiences of the affluent north, especially its young viewers, who know little of the traumas of African decolonization struggles and the Cold War context. This explains why he chose a commercial format for his biographical movie. 9 The juxtaposition of these two films by the same director makes clearer the object of this section. Lumumba ( 2000 ) is historical in the conventional sense of cinematographic dramatization...

Intellectual History and Historiography

Intellectual History and Historiography   Reference library

Jonathon L. Earle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
14,607 words

...and the circulation and development of colonial medical vocabularies and practices. Its digital collections include HIV/AIDS posters and Arabic manuscripts. Wilson Center, Digital Archive . The digitized material of the Wilson Center illustrates the ideational arenas of the Cold War. It includes correspondence between African state builders and American diplomats. The search function provides a powerful keyword engine in addition to a map that enables researchers to locate available material according to geographies. World Digital Library . A service of the...

African Historical Geography, Landscapes, and Environmental Change

African Historical Geography, Landscapes, and Environmental Change   Reference library

Katherine Homewood

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,078 words

...Species Assemblages. Anyone working with archaeologists will be familiar with the concept of dating finds, whether plant, animal, or human remains or artifacts, or indeed the traces of past geophysical events—volcanic eruption, floods, extended periods of exceptionally warm/wet or cold/dry conditions, exceptionally high or low lake levels. Dating techniques span our macro/micro divide. This article does not deal with the most macro of geological dating techniques—stratigraphy of sedimentary or volcanic layers, whether in cores or in situ, generally used for...

Syria

Syria   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
20,061 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in 280 bce , while trying to take Macedonia, and his son abandoned the project. The wars of Alexander's generals ceased one year later, when Lysimachos, followed by Ptolemy, died. During the next two centuries, eighteen kings ruled Syria. The period was marked by five wars with the Lagids, who never abandoned their original intention to occupy Syria—and more particularly to dominate its strategic harbors, which allowed domination of the eastern Mediterranean. During these wars, southern Syria was often under Lagid occupation. Political difficulties began in...

Sport History and Historiography

Sport History and Historiography   Reference library

Michelle Sikes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,948 words

...runners. Any Games absent these African athletes would be tarnished. Their call to boycott received widespread international support, including from Eastern Bloc nations. Finding favor in keeping South Africa from Olympic participation was colored by the broader context of the Cold War. This greater strife being played out in the world along the capitalism/communism conflict was manifested in IOC discussions and international sport circles. Soviet sports officials were critics of South Africa and receptive to African nations’ anti-apartheid lobby in ways that...

The Wisconsin School of African HIstory

The Wisconsin School of African HIstory   Reference library

Joseph C. Miller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
13,688 words

... The Politics of Environmental Control in Northeastern Tanzania, 1840–1940 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992); Elizabeth Schmidt (see note 67), as well as A integrating recent African political dynamics into Foreign Intervention in Africa: From the Cold War to the War on Terror (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013). Jean Hay, the founding partner in editing the series, later became production editor of the International Journal of African Historical Studies (Boston University) and was lead editor there for six years,...

Business Records as Sources for African History

Business Records as Sources for African History   Reference library

Dmitri van den Bersselaar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,806 words

...more obvious, sources such as official administrative records and missionary sources. However, the independence of the view from business should not be overstated, as enterprise has been closely associated with local and global power relations, including the colonial project, Cold War politics and military rule, and neoliberalism. Primary Sources One way to find out if company records exist for the research period and region is to approach the business in question. They may have a company archive or may be able to refer to a repository. Some companies have started...

Documentary Sources and Methods for Precolonial African History

Documentary Sources and Methods for Precolonial African History   Reference library

Christina Mobley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
30,112 words

...due to extreme hot and cold. The northern temperate climate zone held the known world—the oikoumenè . The southern hemisphere was an inverted mirror of the oikoumenè , an unknown land mass divided into climate zones inhabited by the antipodes . 43 The climate zones were more than astronomical tools; they were also ideas about the nature of the world and its inhabitants. The further one traveled from temperate climates, the stranger the inhabitants became, culminating in the barbarians living near the extreme hot and cold climates. The first written d...

Palestine

Palestine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
25,655 words
Illustration(s):
1

...strategy responded to the increase of basic group size and sedentism. The Harifıan culture ( c. 10,700–10,1000 bp ) in the Negev and Sinai is interpreted as a cultural adaptation of Late Natufıan to the dry and cold conditions of the Younger Dryas. (This brief cold and dry period is now recognized globally and considered the last cold spell of the last glacial cycle.) Their small winter sites were dispersed in the lowlands while the larger summer–fall sites were in the highlands. The latter contain semisubterranean dwellings, mortars, pestles, grinding...

Migration History and Historiography

Migration History and Historiography   Reference library

Benedetta Rossi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
16,419 words

...Migration Working Paper No. 80, 2006), 9. 83. Keith Hart, 1973, “Informal Income Opportunities and Urban Employment in Ghana,” Journal of Modern African Studies 2, no. 1 (1973): 61–89. See also Hart’s retrospective reflections in Keith Hart, “Market and State after the Cold War: The Informal Economy Reconsidered,” in Contesting Markets , ed. Roy Dilley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1992), 214–226, here 217. See also Basudeb Guha-Khasnobis, Ravi Kanbur, and Elinor Ostrom, “Beyond Formality and Informality,” in Linking the Formal and the...

Legal History and Historiography in Colonial Sub-Saharan Africa

Legal History and Historiography in Colonial Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

Richard Waller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
13,363 words

...of the Hanged: Britain’s Dirty War and the End of Empire in Kenya (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 2005); and David M. Anderson and Julianne Weis, “The Prosecution of Rape in Wartime: Evidence from the Mau Mau Rebellion, Kenya 1952–60,” Law and History Review 36 (2018): 267–291. 73. Martin Thomas, Violence and Colonial Order: Police, Workers and Protest in the European Colonial Empires, 1918–1940 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012); and Marc Matera, Misty Bastian, and Susan Kent, The Women’s War of 1929: Gender and Violence in...

Coins

Coins   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,430 words
Illustration(s):
4

...be incurred by a mint issuing precious metal if the weights were inaccurate; therefore, great care was taken to ensure exact standards. Almost invariably, throughout the history of coinage—normally a prerogative of the state—coins were produced by striking. A blank, which might be cold or hot, depending on size and the practice of the mint in question, was suitably adjusted for dimensions and weight. It was then placed between two dies of bronze or iron, or, by the Islamic period, of steel. The lower die was often fixed in a wooden block, or placed in a fitted...

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