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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Old Vicarage, The

Old Vicarage, The   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...made in England since the Second World War. The Arts and Crafts vicarage was bought in 1973 by Alan Gray and Graham Robeson—at first a weekend house, it became their permanent abode in 1986 . A weekend garden expanded into a full-time garden and by 2003 , when it occupied 5 hectares/12 acres, Gray and Robeson showed no signs of ceasing its expansion. The site, as flat as only Norfolk knows how to do, is close to the sea, which has a pronounced effect on the microclimate and also exposes the garden to fierce, cold east winds. Windbreaks have been...

Ehemalige Abtei Seligenstadt

Ehemalige Abtei Seligenstadt   Reference library

Dr Bernd Modrow

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Virgin Mary), the Thiergarten (where deer were kept), and the garden beside the abbot's quarters. An orangery , built in 1757 , is a rare survival of its date. It has also been possible to reconstruct domestic facilities of monastic life such as the stables, dovecote, beehives, cold rooms, well, and mill wheels. The monastery with its grounds has become an important cultural centre for the region. Dr Bernd...

Austria

Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... by Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq , Ferdinand I's ambassador to Suleiman the Magnificent. The influence of the Renaissance is seen in the remarkable early 17th-century grottoes at Hellbrunn . It is also seen in the garden at Ambras. As a result of the Turkish wars in 1527 and 1683 and the Thirty Years War between 1618 and 1648 , the eastern provinces were sacked and most of the garden sites were destroyed. Following the rebuilding of the country in the late 17th century, baroque garden art evolved under the influence of Dutch botanists, Italian and French...

Finland

Finland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...suggest orchards and kitchen gardens, while nothing points at ambitious formal compositions. Yet a number of exotic ornamental flowering plants appear to have been commonly used by the end of the 17th century, many having medicinal uses as well. After a bleak period of wars and cold weather, interest grew in ornamental gardens, garden literature, and plants during the late 18th century. The influence of the first university of Finland, Åbo Academy, and the disciples of Carolus Linnaeus there, Pehr Kalm ( 1716–79 ) and Pehr Gadd ( 1727–97 ), was...

Hidcote Manor

Hidcote Manor   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Manor near Chipping Camden, Gloucestershire, England, has been one of the most influential English gardens of its time. The 17th-century house on a cold and windy hill was bought in 1907 by an American, Gertrude Winthrop, whose son Major Lawrence Johnston started to make a garden after the First World War. The garden is broadly in the tradition of Arts and Crafts gardens with a firmly patterned layout of walks, hedges, and compartments. Johnston had a strong architectural sensibility which he expressed both in the layout and in the plants which...

Canada

Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...still unknown. Many of their beloved garden plants (as well as weeds) nudged out native species, and the wholesale felling of trees from east to west degraded this fragile landscape with a speed previously unknown. Canada's climate seems to be either extremely hot or extremely cold. Parts of the Boreal Forest (a 360-km/600-mile wide band from Newfoundland in the east to Alaska in the west) have only 90 frost-free days annually; the semi-arid Prairie climate is prone to severe drought; the west coast rainforest is dripping wet a good deal of the year; and to...

Bulgaria

Bulgaria   Reference library

Assen Gasharov

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Centrally located in the Balkan Peninsula, Bulgaria has a temperate transitional-continental climate with four distinctive seasons. The southernmost parts enjoy warm Mediterranean influence, while the Black Sea softens the coastline climate in the east. Typically, winters are cold (down to −15 °C/5 °F) with a durable snow cover and summers are hot (up to 35 °C/95 °F) with occasional rain. Wet cool springs and autumns ensure proper vegetative periods. Abundant mountain ranges (up to 2,900 m/9,500 ft) seriously modify local weather patterns as in higher...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...landscape park encompassing Yelagin Island was most ill judged, but sensitive restoration eventually followed, After the Second World War Krestovsky Island, on which Nikolsky's sports stadium stands, was rededicated as the Primorsky Victory Park, one of the numerous victory parks which continued a tradition, begun at Peterhof, of celebrating military success in park architecture. Another architectural consequence of the war is the very moving Piskaryovskoye Cemetry for the countless victims of the siege of Leningrad. Not the least of the achievements of the...

Self, Colin

Self, Colin (17 July 1941)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of British Graphic Artists and Illustrators

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a mistrust of human behaviour and his fears of imminent nuclear destruction. Believing that humans share an animal-like taste for destruction, he created works such as Leopardskin Nuclear Bomber No. 2 ( 1963 ) and Guard Dog on a Missile Base, No. 1 ( 1965 ) that juxtapose Cold War weaponry with fierce animal aggression. A trip to the USA did nothing to dispel his fears. In Hot Dog Sculpture ( 1965 ), he alluded to the darker side of consumerism. A giant cast polyester resin hotdog, a symbol of a new fast-food culture, appears charred by nuclear warfare....

Pang Xunqin

Pang Xunqin (1906)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of Asian Artists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...school trends, Fauvism and Cubism. However, only a small group of intellectuals was in sympathy with the society's remit, and Pang was swiftly discouraged by the cold reception to the paintings he had brought back from Paris. He went so far as to burn most of his works and decided to spend a year in the country with his family, in order to re-acquaint himself with Chinese culture. During the war years Pang, like many other artists, discovered the Western reaches of China and the peoples that inhabit them, and he was profoundly struck by the savage beauty of...

Monuments

Monuments   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,945 words

...in fact, tremendously complex. In the United States, the traditional codes of monumentality are enacted through the kitsch forms of commercial architecture in cities like Las Vegas, yet a surge of memorial building has gripped the capital. In the late 1980s and 1990s, the post–cold war dismantling of monuments throughout the Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe has been regarded as a kind of death of the monument. Images of these larger-than-life monuments pulled down by crowds, warehoused, and obsolete, have had profound symbolic value in signaling the end of...

Brecht, Bertolt

Brecht, Bertolt (1898)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,304 words

...remain a complicated matter. Disagreements over what Brecht's statements mean and what his achievement was (if any) still mark the reception of his writing and production history. The initial reception was not smooth. In the West, in an intellectual environment colored by cold-war politics and a highly developed analysis of what a theory is, Brecht was frequently castigated for writing overheated and self-contradictory rhetoric in place of theory. It came to be almost a platitude that Brecht, who was acknowledged to be a pretty good theatrical director,...

Abstract Expressionism

Abstract Expressionism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,219 words

...serving the very mass formations it imagined it was inoculating itself against. Increasingly throughout the immediate postwar period, exhibitions of the “New American Painting” were sent overseas as vivid emissaries of democracy in the cultural cold war. The artists working in cultivated bohemian alienation during the war anticipated none of this, however. The interior world revealed by automatism was deeply private, and the artists resisted collective identity through their statements and through the very disjunctions of their jealously protected “signature...

Kahn, Louis Isadore

Kahn, Louis Isadore (1901)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,529 words
Illustration(s):
1

...using this giant bay system, setting cubic pavilions below its giant roof, carried on monumental structural columns. Manfredo Tafuri and Francesco Dal Co, in Modern Architecture describe these experiments at Yale as the origins of a new American “imperial” style in the cold-war years. Kenneth Frampton , in Modern Architecture: A Critical History , also notes the importance of Yale and its dean, Kahn's friend Howe, when this new monumental style emerged. Kahn played a crucial role in the definition of this new modular “imperial” aesthetic, but his...

Performance Art

Performance Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,630 words
Illustration(s):
1

...myth to create an archaeology of symbols—wool felt, fat, honey, a dead hare—for bodily transitions from cold to warm in his performances and installations: the tendency of these materials to deteriorate naturally cheated the museum's conservatory impulses in true Fluxus fashion. Claiming that everyone is an artist, Beuys expressed an antipathy for traditional art-historical means of granting meaning and legitimacy to art as well as for the “coldness” of the formal project of modernism, embodied for him by figures like Duchamp ( The Silence of Marcel Duchamp...

Sociology of Art

Sociology of Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,145 words

...European theoretical formulations, by the end of World War II, with the destruction or undermining of much European scholarship by totalitarian regimes, or under their military occupation, American sociology, along with American science more generally, had become the most dynamic and expansive in the world. This growth was a counterpart to the prominence of the United States on the international scene as the champion of Western humanist values during the war and defender of freedom during the cold war. American social-scientific scholarship, however, had...

Ideology

Ideology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,193 words

...ranging from examination of the constraints on earlier artistic activity by the religious or courtly commissioners of work to more recent examples such as the effect on Abstract Expressionist painting of its utilization by the American ruling class as a propaganda weapon in the cold war. Serge Guilbaut , for instance, concluded with regard to the latter case that American “[a]vant-garde art succeeded because the work and the ideology that supported it, articulated in the painters’ writings as well as conveyed in images, coincided fairly closely with the...

Glass

Glass   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,225 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to glass in his 1853 publication The Stones of Venice . In it Ruskin reveals his affinity for Venetian styles of the Renaissance, which were distinguished, in his opinion, by the two most significant characteristics of glass: its ductility when heated and its transparency when cold. Ruskin wrote, “All work in glass is bad which does not, with loud voice, proclaim one or the other of these qualities. Consequently, all cut glass is barbarous for the cutting conceals it ductility and confuses it with crystal. No workman ought to spend more than an hour in the...

Ineffability

Ineffability   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,888 words

...unfixed and wavering between them, attaching itself permanently to none, it is imagination.” To demonstrate this hovering, Coleridge cited, first, Romeo's oxymoronic description of his predicament in love.’ “Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms! / Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health!” (1.1.185–186); and then, once again, Milton on Death. A string of oxymorons provides a continuous texture of self-contradiction, an aporia by which language deletes itself as quickly as it sets itself down; it is a useful device for alluding to the ineffable,...

Collage

Collage   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,453 words
Illustration(s):
1

...shallow space, and other formal characterizations of the work of Picasso, Braque, and Gris were rooted in a tradition that connects Heinrich Wölfflin, Clive Bell, Roger Fry, and Barr. His neglect of the sociological and dialectical meanings of collage can be indexed to cold-war assumptions about the relationships between specialized readings, creative individualism, and a censorial distaste for the artist as political. The immediate possibilities for contemporary critique in collage, and its variants, have often been denigrated by those concerned with...

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