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Charles Evans Hughes

Subject: Law

(b. Glen Falls, New York, 11 Apr. 1862; d. Osterville, Massachusetts, 27 Aug. 1948) US; Governor of New York 1906–10, Republican presidential candidate 1916 Hughes, the son of a ...

Washington Naval Arms Conference

Washington Naval Arms Conference   Reference library

Gary B. Ostrower

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...shifted to the new League of Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, called the conference. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes electrified the delegates at the opening session on 12 November 1921 by proposing a ten-year naval building “holiday,” along with scrapping existing ships and others planned or under construction. The goal, he announced, was to prevent a naval arms race in the Pacific. Serving the cause of both peace and budgetary restraint, Hughes's plan was incorporated into the Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty (often called the Washington Treaty)....

Coolidge, Calvin

Coolidge, Calvin (1872–1933)   Reference library

David Sim

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...but simply that Coolidge did not advance a distinctive, coherent foreign policy during his time in office. Despite this, economic and political imperatives continued to drive American engagement with the wider world. Coolidge kept his predecessor's secretary of state, Charles Evans Hughes, in that post until 1925 , when he replaced him with a surprising choice, Frank B. Kellogg . Coolidge took great interest in diplomatic appointments, and it was during his presidency that Congress passed the Rogers Act of 1924 . This created the United States Foreign...

Kellogg, Frank B.

Kellogg, Frank B. (1856–1937)   Reference library

Robert David Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to Communism. Kellogg remained in public life as U.S. ambassador to Britain, though his greatest impact on foreign policy began in 1925 when President Calvin Coolidge recalled him from London to replace Charles Evans Hughes as secretary of state. With Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover concerning himself with European matters, and with Hughes's so-called Washington system still governing U.S. relations with East Asia, Kellogg focused on Latin America. Championing a strongly pro-business vision of international law and lacking much background knowledge...

State, U.S. Secretaries of

State, U.S. Secretaries of   Reference library

Edward S. Mihalkanin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...collaborations in U.S. diplomatic history. President Warren G. Harding ( 1921–1923 ) gave complete control of U.S. foreign policy to his esteemed secretary of state Charles Evans Hughes ( 1921–1925 ). Hughes's diplomatic achievements at the Washington Naval Arms Conference ( 1921–1922 ) were entirely his own. Hughes's prestige was so great that Mrs. Harding asked Hughes to help the president with domestic issues, but the secretary rarely participated in domestic-policy discussions. President Harry S. Truman had the highest respect for his third...

State, U.S. Department of

State, U.S. Department of   Reference library

Robert David Johnson and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., proved ineffectual because Wilson, advised by Colonel Edward M. House , essentially acted as his own secretary of state, an approach taken by other strong presidents as well. Despite congressional criticism, the State Department regained prestige in the 1920s under Charles Evans Hughes , Frank Kellogg , and Henry Stimson , one of the nation's most prescient diplomats. The freewheeling presidential style of Franklin Delano Roosevelt again lessened the department's influence, even as Cordell Hull became the longest serving secretary of state in...

Wilson, Woodrow

Wilson, Woodrow (1856–1924)   Reference library

John Milton Cooper

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...knew that the reduced threat of war with Germany was only a remission. He regarded the situation as so perilous that if he lost the election, he planned to appoint his Republican opponent, Charles Evans Hughes , secretary of state, thus putting Hughes second in line of succession; then Wilson would have the vice president resign and subsequently resign himself, and Hughes would thereby become president immediately, rather than wait for the inauguration on 4 March. Once Wilson knew that he had been reelected, he launched a peace offensive. He sent a public...

Interwar Period, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the

Interwar Period, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the   Reference library

Justus D. Doenecke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Britain, and France pledged themselves to consult one another should their possessions be threatened. The United States undertook no obligation: anti-interventionists in Congress made sure that no commitments to armed force were involved. Spearheaded by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes , the conference also drafted the Five-Power Treaty, signed by the United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy, that established a naval-tonnage ratio for battleships of 5 to 5 to 3 to 1.67 to 1.67. The treaty eliminated some thirty ships under American construction,...

World War I (1914–1918)

World War I (1914–1918)   Reference library

Timothy J. Lynch, Volker R. Berghahn, John Whiteclay Chambers, David R. Woodward, Ronald Schaffer, Lloyd E. Ambrosius, and Robert H. Ferrell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...association of nations, a theme that complemented his peace platform. On Election Day, a coalition of liberal reformers, progressive internationalists, and socialists swelled the normal Democratic vote. By a narrow margin Wilson prevailed over his Republican challenger, Charles Evans Hughes . Although the election may have constituted a referendum on progressivism and peace, American neutrality remained fragile. The best way to avoid war, Wilson reasoned, was to bring about a negotiated settlement between the warring alliances. Twice, in 1915 and 1916 , he...

Progressive Movement, US

Progressive Movement, US   Reference library

Kenneth Finegold

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...were exploitative economic interests; opposition to the railroads was particularly important in the Midwest and West. Robert LaFollette ( Wisconsin ) and Hiram Johnson ( California ) built farm-labor alliances to become governors of their states, and then US senators. Charles Evans Hughes was elected governor of New York after leading an investigation into insurance company abuses. Progressivism created chaos in national politics, but ultimately little was changed permanently. In 1912 , former President Theodore Roosevelt organized the Progressive...

KENT, James

KENT, James (1763–1847)   Reference library

Brian E. Butler

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the State of New York (New York, 1848). Ellis, Richard E. The Jeffersonian Crisis: Courts and Politics in the Young Republic (Oxford, 1971). Horton, John T. James Kent: A Study in Conservatism 1763–1847 (New York, 1939). Contains a bibliography of Kent’s writings. Hughes, Charles Evans . “ James Kent: A Master Builder of Legal Institutions ,” American Bar Association Journal 9 (1923): 353–9. Langbein, John H. “ Chancellor Kent and the History of Legal Literature ,” Columbia Law Review 93 (1993): 547–94. Raack, David W. “ ‘To Preserve the Best...

Parker, Horatio

Parker, Horatio (15 Sept 1863)   Reference library

William Kearns and E. Douglas Bomberger

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,335 words

...of Age of American Art Music: New England's Classical Romanticists (New York, Westport, CT, and London, 1991) A.B. Scott : “Medieval and Renaissance Techniques in the Music of Charles Ives: Horatio at the Bridge?” MQ, lxxviii (1994), 448–78 S.E. Scroggins : The Songs of Horatio Parker (diss., U. of Maryland, 1995) N.E. Tawa : “Charles Ives and the New England School,” Charles Ives and the Classical Tradition , ed. G.H. Block and J.P. Burkholder (New Haven, CT, 1996), 51–74 W.K. Kearns : “Horatio Parker, Edward Elgar, and Choral Music at the Turn of...

Jazz

Jazz   Reference library

Mark Tucker, Travis A. Jackson, and Travis A. Jackson

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
30,073 words
Illustration(s):
10

...and the pianist Bill Evans and consisted of an improvised middle section flanked by a pre-composed introduction and coda evoking Webern's spare textures and Klangfarbenmelodie . Similar blends and juxtapositions of jazz with European art music (from the Baroque to the post-tonal) can be heard in compositions from this time by John Lewis of the Modern Jazz Quartet (“Vendome,” “La Ronde Suite,” “Concorde,” and “Piazza Navona”), George Russell (“Concerto for Billy the Kid,” written for Bill Evans, and “All about Rosie”), and Charles Mingus (“Gregarian Chant”...

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