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Charles Evans Hughes

Subject: Law

(b. Glen Falls, New York, 11 Apr. 1862; d. Osterville, Massachusetts, 27 Aug. 1948) US; Governor of New York 1906–10, Republican presidential candidate 1916 Hughes, the son of a ...

Hughes, Charles Evans

Hughes, Charles Evans (1910–16)   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
586 words

...chief justice Feb. 13, 1930 , by a 52–26 vote; retired July 1, 1941 • Died: Aug. 27, 1948 , Cape Cod, Mass. Charles Evans Hughes served two terms on the Supreme Court, first as an associate justice ( 1910–16 ) and then as the chief justice ( 1930–41 ). He resigned from his first Court term to become the Republican party candidate for President. He lost to his Democratic party opponent, President Woodrow Wilson, by only 23 electoral votes. Hughes served two Republican Presidents, Harding and Coolidge, as secretary of state. In this role, he negotiated...

Hughes, Charles Evans

Hughes, Charles Evans (11 Apr. 1862)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
318 words

..., Charles Evans (b. Glen Falls, New York , 11 Apr. 1862 ; d. Osterville, Massachusetts , 27 Aug. 1948 ) US ; Governor of New York 1906–10 , Republican presidential candidate 1916 Hughes, the son of a Baptist preacher, was educated at Brown University and Columbia Law School, from which he graduated in 1884 . He served as a legal counsel for New York in investigations of insurance firms and utility industries in the state. In 1906 he was elected Governor of New York and re-elected in 1908 . In this post he established a Public Service...

Brandeis, Louis

Brandeis, Louis   Reference library

William M. Wiecek

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
487 words

...confirmed and served for twenty-three years. He advocated judicial self-restraint in cases involving state economic regulation, urging deference to legislative policy judgments. Usually in dissent during the chief justiceships of William Howard Taft ( 1921 – 1930 ) and Charles Evans Hughes ( 1930 – 1941 ), he repeated his Brandeis-brief technique, amassing facts and statistics to demonstrate that the legislative judgment was reasonable. Believing that the diversity-of-citizenship jurisdiction of the federal courts permitted large corporations to evade state...

Fairbanks, Charles

Fairbanks, Charles   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
177 words

...exercised no influence in the progressive Roosevelt administration. He later supported William Howard Taft against Roosevelt in the 1912 Presidential election. The Republicans again nominated him for Vice President in 1916 on a ticket headed by Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes...

justiciable questions

justiciable questions   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
200 words

...questions The U.S. Supreme Court has held that federal courts may deal only with cases or questions that are justiciable, that is, questions “appropriate for judicial determination” ( Aetna Life Insurance Co. v. Haworth , 1937 ). In the Aetna case Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes discussed the differences between justiciable questions or issues and those not justiciable. He emphasized that justiciable questions involve a “real and substantial controversy” that can be resolved by a conclusive decision of a court of law. The U.S. Supreme Court does...

Stromberg v. California

Stromberg v. California   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
370 words

...denied her right to freedom of speech guaranteed by the 1st and 14th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. California attorneys claimed that the state law used to convict Stromberg was within the state's power to maintain order and safety. Opinion of the Court Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes , writing for the Court, overturned the conviction of Yetta Stromberg. The California “red flag law” was declared unconstitutional because it violated “the conception of liberty under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment [which] embraces the right of free...

West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish

West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
582 words

...a minimum wage for children and women workers in the District of Columbia. The dissenting view in Morehead —by Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes and Justices Louis Brandeis, Benjamin Cardozo, and Harlan Fiske Stone—was the foundation for the Court's opinion in this case, written by Hughes . Justice Owen Roberts joined the four Morehead dissenters to form the Court majority in this case. Chief Justice Hughes rejected the idea of liberty of contract set forth in the Adkins and Morehead cases. He wrote: The Constitution does not speak of...

Clarke, John H.

Clarke, John H. (1916–22)   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
262 words

...1857 , New Lisbon, Ohio • Education: Western Reserve University, B.A., 1877 ; M.A., 1880 • Previous government service: federal judge, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Ohio, 1914–16 • Appointed by President Woodrow Wilson July 14, 1916 ; replaced Charles Evans Hughes , who resigned • Supreme Court term: confirmed by the Senate July 24, 1916 , by a voice vote; resigned Sept. 18, 1922 • Died: Mar. 22, 1945 , San Diego, Calif. John H. Clarke served only six years on the Supreme Court. During this brief period, he often sided with ...

National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp

National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
779 words

...commerce power and ruled that it did not violate the 5th Amendment's due process clause. Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes wrote that the Wagner Act's purpose was to reduce the possibility of strikes, which could disrupt the production and distribution of products and thereby increase the bargaining power to achieve satisfactory working conditions. Strikes could be prevented, Hughes said, by protecting the right of workers to organize labor unions. Hughes also rejected the “liberty of contract” argument based on the due process clause of the 5th Amendment....

Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States

Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
559 words

...delegate so much power to the President? And did the law come under Congress's power to regulate interstate commerce? Opinion of the Court The NIRA lost on all counts. The Supreme Court ruled that the economic problems of the nation did not justify the NIRA. Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes wrote that “extraordinary conditions do not create or enlarge constitutional power.” Second, the Court said that under the Constitution only Congress has the power to make laws. If Congress wanted to delegate any of this power to the President, it had to set clear...

court-packing plan

court-packing plan   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
541 words

... justices, Willis Van Devanter , James McReynolds , George Sutherland , and Pierce Butler , were ardent opponents of the New Deal. Three justices had voted to uphold Roosevelt's program: Louis D. Brandeis , Harlan Fiske Stone, , and Benjamin Cardozo . Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes and Associate Justice Owen Roberts were swing voters; they sometimes upheld New Deal legislation, but they had voted to strike down several laws that they believed delegated too much power to New Deal agencies. None of these justices had been appointed by Roosevelt ,...

dissenting opinion

dissenting opinion   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
495 words

...to arouse public opinion against the majority opinion. Ultimately, the dissenting judge hopes that the Court will reconsider the majority opinion and overrule it and that his opinion will someday become the basis for a majority opinion in a similar case. Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes wrote: “A dissent in a court of last resort is an appeal to the brooding spirit of the law, to the intelligence of a future day, when a later decision may possibly correct the error into which the dissenting judge believes the court to have been betrayed.” For example, ...

Progressive Movement, US

Progressive Movement, US   Reference library

Kenneth Finegold

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...were exploitative economic interests; opposition to the railroads was particularly important in the Midwest and West. Robert LaFollette ( Wisconsin ) and Hiram Johnson ( California ) built farm-labor alliances to become governors of their states, and then US senators. Charles Evans Hughes was elected governor of New York after leading an investigation into insurance company abuses. Progressivism created chaos in national politics, but ultimately little was changed permanently. In 1912 , former President Theodore Roosevelt organized the Progressive...

Near v. Minnesota

Near v. Minnesota   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,147 words

...on the press that violated both the 1st Amendment and the due process clause of the 14th Amendment. Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes , in the majority opinion, declared the Minnesota law “the essence of censorship.” He stated that libel laws, not newspaper closures, should counter false charges and character assassinations. He emphasized that the right to criticize government officials was one of the foundations of the American nation. Hughes stressed that “this statute [the Public Nuisance Abatement Law] raises questions of grave importance transcending...

Harding, Warren G.

Harding, Warren G.   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
761 words

...in emergency food relief for the Soviet Union in 1921 to avert a famine, saving as many as 10 million people. Harding concluded a treaty with Colombia that provided $25 million in reparations for the U.S. role in detaching Panama from that nation. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes organized the Naval Disarmament Conference of 1921–22 , a successful effort to limit naval expenditures of major military powers. It resulted in treaties establishing ceilings on the total number of battleships owned by the United States, Great Britain, Japan, and...

Coolidge, John Calvin

Coolidge, John Calvin (4 July 1872)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
953 words

...a Republican landslide and Coolidge went to Washington, DC, as Vice-President. He did not shine in the office. Though sitting in on Cabinet meetings, he contributed little. He was overshadowed by Cabinet members who were either extremely able (such as Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes ) or extremely corrupt (such as Interior Secretary Albert Fall ). However, on 2 August 1923 President Harding died. Coolidge was on holiday at his family home in Vermont and in the early hours of the morning of 3 August was sworn in as President by his father, a notary...

Stone, Harlan Fiske

Stone, Harlan Fiske (1925–41)   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
738 words

...service: U.S. attorney general, 1924–25 • Appointed by President Calvin Coolidge to be an associate justice Jan. 5, 1925 ; replaced Joseph McKenna , who retired; appointed chief justice by President Franklin D. Roosevelt June 12, 1941 ; replaced Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes , who retired • Supreme Court term: confirmed as an associate justice by the Senate Feb. 5, 1925 , by a 71–6 vote; confirmed by the Senate as chief justice June 27, 1941 , by a voice vote; served until Apr. 22, 1946 • Died: Apr. 22, 1946 , Washington, D.C. Harlan...

chief justice

chief justice   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
985 words

...appointed the chief justice generally acclaimed as the greatest, John Marshall , who served from 1801 until his death in 1835 . His tenure as chief justice was the longest. Other chief justices whom scholars and legal experts consider truly great are Roger B. Taney , Charles Evans Hughes , Harlan Fiske Stone , and Earl Warren . Five chief justices, nearly one-third of the total from 1789 to 1993 , have performed well enough to receive such excellent ratings. See also Administration of federal courts ; Justices of the Supreme Court Sources Jeffrey...

Wilson, Thomas Woodrow

Wilson, Thomas Woodrow (28 Dec. 1856)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,192 words

...and to remove the privileges of special interests. He achieved both tariff and banking reform. In 1916 he was nominated for a second term and won re-election with a clear but not overwhelming majority over his Republic opponent, Charles Evans Hughes . (Wilson amassed 9.1 million votes to 8.5 million for Hughes.) Though he had maintained American neutrality in the opening years of the First World War, a fact used in his re-election campaign (‘he kept us out of the war’), the resumption by Germany in 1917 of unrestricted submarine warfare led...

property rights

property rights   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,411 words

...public good (in National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp. and West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish ), did the trend shift away from the resistance to many kinds of public regulations of private property rights. In the Parrish case, Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes rejected the “liberty of contract” idea that had prevailed in the Lochner decision and other subsequent decisions. He wrote for the Court, “Liberty under the Constitution is … necessarily subject to the restraints of due process, and regulation [of a private business by...

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