You are looking at 1-20 of 70 entries  for:

  • All: Charles Evans Hughes x
  • Social sciences x
clear all

View:

Overview

Charles Evans Hughes

Subject: Law

(b. Glen Falls, New York, 11 Apr. 1862; d. Osterville, Massachusetts, 27 Aug. 1948) US; Governor of New York 1906–10, Republican presidential candidate 1916 Hughes, the son of a ...

Hughes, Charles Evans

Hughes, Charles Evans (1910–16)   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
586 words

...chief justice Feb. 13, 1930 , by a 52–26 vote; retired July 1, 1941 • Died: Aug. 27, 1948 , Cape Cod, Mass. Charles Evans Hughes served two terms on the Supreme Court, first as an associate justice ( 1910–16 ) and then as the chief justice ( 1930–41 ). He resigned from his first Court term to become the Republican party candidate for President. He lost to his Democratic party opponent, President Woodrow Wilson, by only 23 electoral votes. Hughes served two Republican Presidents, Harding and Coolidge, as secretary of state. In this role, he negotiated...

Hughes, Charles Evans

Hughes, Charles Evans (11 Apr. 1862)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
318 words

..., Charles Evans (b. Glen Falls, New York , 11 Apr. 1862 ; d. Osterville, Massachusetts , 27 Aug. 1948 ) US ; Governor of New York 1906–10 , Republican presidential candidate 1916 Hughes, the son of a Baptist preacher, was educated at Brown University and Columbia Law School, from which he graduated in 1884 . He served as a legal counsel for New York in investigations of insurance firms and utility industries in the state. In 1906 he was elected Governor of New York and re-elected in 1908 . In this post he established a Public Service...

Washington Naval Arms Conference

Washington Naval Arms Conference   Reference library

Gary B. Ostrower

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...shifted to the new League of Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, called the conference. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes electrified the delegates at the opening session on 12 November 1921 by proposing a ten-year naval building “holiday,” along with scrapping existing ships and others planned or under construction. The goal, he announced, was to prevent a naval arms race in the Pacific. Serving the cause of both peace and budgetary restraint, Hughes's plan was incorporated into the Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty (often called the Washington Treaty)....

Brandeis, Louis

Brandeis, Louis   Reference library

William M. Wiecek

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
487 words

...confirmed and served for twenty-three years. He advocated judicial self-restraint in cases involving state economic regulation, urging deference to legislative policy judgments. Usually in dissent during the chief justiceships of William Howard Taft ( 1921 – 1930 ) and Charles Evans Hughes ( 1930 – 1941 ), he repeated his Brandeis-brief technique, amassing facts and statistics to demonstrate that the legislative judgment was reasonable. Believing that the diversity-of-citizenship jurisdiction of the federal courts permitted large corporations to evade state...

Coolidge, Calvin

Coolidge, Calvin (1872–1933)   Reference library

David Sim

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...but simply that Coolidge did not advance a distinctive, coherent foreign policy during his time in office. Despite this, economic and political imperatives continued to drive American engagement with the wider world. Coolidge kept his predecessor's secretary of state, Charles Evans Hughes, in that post until 1925 , when he replaced him with a surprising choice, Frank B. Kellogg . Coolidge took great interest in diplomatic appointments, and it was during his presidency that Congress passed the Rogers Act of 1924 . This created the United States Foreign...

Kellogg, Frank B.

Kellogg, Frank B. (1856–1937)   Reference library

Robert David Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to Communism. Kellogg remained in public life as U.S. ambassador to Britain, though his greatest impact on foreign policy began in 1925 when President Calvin Coolidge recalled him from London to replace Charles Evans Hughes as secretary of state. With Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover concerning himself with European matters, and with Hughes's so-called Washington system still governing U.S. relations with East Asia, Kellogg focused on Latin America. Championing a strongly pro-business vision of international law and lacking much background knowledge...

The League of Nations

The League of Nations (1919–46)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...all formal association with it throughout the 1920s, even, for example, when promulgating the Dawes Plan of 1924 , the effort to compose Europe's reparations–war debt tangle. Yet, in this endeavor, the League undoubtedly facilitated Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes 's labors. Then, too, Hughes staunchly (if ineffectively) advocated American membership in the World Court. The United States further underscored its ambivalence in the salutary achievement of the Washington Naval Conference of 1921–22 as well as in the innocuous Kellogg‐Briand Pact of...

State, U.S. Secretaries of

State, U.S. Secretaries of   Reference library

Edward S. Mihalkanin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...collaborations in U.S. diplomatic history. President Warren G. Harding ( 1921–1923 ) gave complete control of U.S. foreign policy to his esteemed secretary of state Charles Evans Hughes ( 1921–1925 ). Hughes's diplomatic achievements at the Washington Naval Arms Conference ( 1921–1922 ) were entirely his own. Hughes's prestige was so great that Mrs. Harding asked Hughes to help the president with domestic issues, but the secretary rarely participated in domestic-policy discussions. President Harry S. Truman had the highest respect for his third...

State, U.S. Department of

State, U.S. Department of   Reference library

Robert David Johnson and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., proved ineffectual because Wilson, advised by Colonel Edward M. House , essentially acted as his own secretary of state, an approach taken by other strong presidents as well. Despite congressional criticism, the State Department regained prestige in the 1920s under Charles Evans Hughes , Frank Kellogg , and Henry Stimson , one of the nation's most prescient diplomats. The freewheeling presidential style of Franklin Delano Roosevelt again lessened the department's influence, even as Cordell Hull became the longest serving secretary of state in...

Wilson, Woodrow

Wilson, Woodrow (1856–1924)   Reference library

John Milton Cooper

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...knew that the reduced threat of war with Germany was only a remission. He regarded the situation as so perilous that if he lost the election, he planned to appoint his Republican opponent, Charles Evans Hughes , secretary of state, thus putting Hughes second in line of succession; then Wilson would have the vice president resign and subsequently resign himself, and Hughes would thereby become president immediately, rather than wait for the inauguration on 4 March. Once Wilson knew that he had been reelected, he launched a peace offensive. He sent a public...

Interwar Period, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the

Interwar Period, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the   Reference library

Justus D. Doenecke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Britain, and France pledged themselves to consult one another should their possessions be threatened. The United States undertook no obligation: anti-interventionists in Congress made sure that no commitments to armed force were involved. Spearheaded by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes , the conference also drafted the Five-Power Treaty, signed by the United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy, that established a naval-tonnage ratio for battleships of 5 to 5 to 3 to 1.67 to 1.67. The treaty eliminated some thirty ships under American construction,...

World War I (1914–1918)

World War I (1914–1918)   Reference library

Timothy J. Lynch, Volker R. Berghahn, John Whiteclay Chambers, David R. Woodward, Ronald Schaffer, Lloyd E. Ambrosius, and Robert H. Ferrell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...association of nations, a theme that complemented his peace platform. On Election Day, a coalition of liberal reformers, progressive internationalists, and socialists swelled the normal Democratic vote. By a narrow margin Wilson prevailed over his Republican challenger, Charles Evans Hughes . Although the election may have constituted a referendum on progressivism and peace, American neutrality remained fragile. The best way to avoid war, Wilson reasoned, was to bring about a negotiated settlement between the warring alliances. Twice, in 1915 and 1916 , he...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...Andres S . “ The King and His Cult: The Axe-Hammer from Sutton Hoo and Its Implications for the Concept of Sacral Leadership in Early Medieval Europe. ” Antiquity 80 (2006): 880–893. Evans, Stephen . The Heroic Poetry of Dark-Age Britain: An Introduction to Its Dating, Composition, and Use as a Historical Source . Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1997. Evans, Stephen . Lords of Battle: Image and Reality of the Comitatus in Dark-Age Britain . Woodbridge, U.K.: Boydell, 1997. Fraser, James E . The Battle of Dunnichen, 685 . Stroud, U.K.: Tempus,...

Fairbanks, Charles

Fairbanks, Charles   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
177 words

...exercised no influence in the progressive Roosevelt administration. He later supported William Howard Taft against Roosevelt in the 1912 Presidential election. The Republicans again nominated him for Vice President in 1916 on a ticket headed by Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes...

Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States

Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States   Reference library

Jeffrey D. Hockett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the Court, Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes said that the law failed to provide adequate guidance concerning what matters the codes would cover. As a result, the NIRA unconstitutionally delegated legislative power to the executive branch. Hughes further argued that the poultry code violated the commerce clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8). According to past cases, Congress could regulate intrastate activity only if the activity had a “direct” impact on interstate commerce. The Schechters’ local commercial activity, Hughes noted, was clearly...

justiciable questions

justiciable questions   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
200 words

...questions The U.S. Supreme Court has held that federal courts may deal only with cases or questions that are justiciable, that is, questions “appropriate for judicial determination” ( Aetna Life Insurance Co. v. Haworth , 1937 ). In the Aetna case Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes discussed the differences between justiciable questions or issues and those not justiciable. He emphasized that justiciable questions involve a “real and substantial controversy” that can be resolved by a conclusive decision of a court of law. The U.S. Supreme Court does...

Stromberg v. California

Stromberg v. California   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
370 words

...denied her right to freedom of speech guaranteed by the 1st and 14th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. California attorneys claimed that the state law used to convict Stromberg was within the state's power to maintain order and safety. Opinion of the Court Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes , writing for the Court, overturned the conviction of Yetta Stromberg. The California “red flag law” was declared unconstitutional because it violated “the conception of liberty under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment [which] embraces the right of free...

West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish

West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
582 words

...a minimum wage for children and women workers in the District of Columbia. The dissenting view in Morehead —by Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes and Justices Louis Brandeis, Benjamin Cardozo, and Harlan Fiske Stone—was the foundation for the Court's opinion in this case, written by Hughes . Justice Owen Roberts joined the four Morehead dissenters to form the Court majority in this case. Chief Justice Hughes rejected the idea of liberty of contract set forth in the Adkins and Morehead cases. He wrote: The Constitution does not speak of...

West Coast Hotel v. Parrish

West Coast Hotel v. Parrish   Reference library

Melvin I. Urofsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...argued before the Supreme Court in December 1936 . Parrish's attorneys asked the Court to overrule precedents, such as Adkins v. Children's Hospital ( 1923 ), that had held minimum-wage laws unconstitutional. In his opinion for the five-justice majority, Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes dismissed the notion of freedom of contract, holding that under their constitutional police powers, states had the authority to regulate wages and hours in the public interest. Despite a spirited dissent by Justice George Sutherland on behalf of the conservative justices,...

Clarke, John H.

Clarke, John H. (1916–22)   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
262 words

...1857 , New Lisbon, Ohio • Education: Western Reserve University, B.A., 1877 ; M.A., 1880 • Previous government service: federal judge, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Ohio, 1914–16 • Appointed by President Woodrow Wilson July 14, 1916 ; replaced Charles Evans Hughes , who resigned • Supreme Court term: confirmed by the Senate July 24, 1916 , by a voice vote; resigned Sept. 18, 1922 • Died: Mar. 22, 1945 , San Diego, Calif. John H. Clarke served only six years on the Supreme Court. During this brief period, he often sided with ...

View: