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Charles Evans Hughes

Subject: Law

(b. Glen Falls, New York, 11 Apr. 1862; d. Osterville, Massachusetts, 27 Aug. 1948) US; Governor of New York 1906–10, Republican presidential candidate 1916 Hughes, the son of a ...

Diabetes

Diabetes   Reference library

Arleen Marcia Tuchman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...success stories. In one particularly famous case, three years of Allen’s diet had left 15-year-old Elizabeth Hughes—daughter of Charles Evans Hughes, U.S. secretary of state and later chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court—weighing under 50 pounds and barely able to walk. Insulin. The discovery of insulin in 1921 / 1922 changed forever the lives of diabetics. Working at the University of Toronto, John J. R. Macleod, Frederick G. Banting, Charles H. Best, and James B. Collip carried out the scientific work leading to the isolation of this pancreatic...

Machinery and Manufacturing

Machinery and Manufacturing   Reference library

Ross Thomson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of Manufactures in the Private Sector . New York: Columbia University Press, 1990. Hounshell, David A. From the American System to Mass Production, 1800–1932 . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984. Hughes, Thomas P. American Genesis: A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm . New York: Penguin, 1990. Hughes, Thomas P. Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society, 1880–1930 . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983. Hunter, Louis C. A History of Industrial Power in the United States, 1780–1930 . Vol. 2, ...

invention in history and culture

invention in history and culture   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

.... Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990: 467–479. Includes an excellent chapter on science and technology in ancient Greece. Hindle, Brooke . Emulation and Invention . New York: W. W. Norton, 1981. Discusses the inventive careers of Robert Fulton and Samuel F. B. Morse. Hughes, Thomas P. American Genesis: A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm, 1870–1970 . New York: Viking-Penguin, 1989. Jakab, Peter L. Visions of a Flying Machine: The Wright Brothers and the Process of Invention . Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990....

Science

Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers, Simon Baatz, James Rodger Fleming, Judith R. Goodstein, and Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...federal patron of science after World War II, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), concentrated on the biomedical disciplines. A multimillion-dollar enterprise with ever-increasing budgets, the NIH set the tone of U.S. biomedical research. Only with the arrival of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s grants program in 1987 did a private institution rival NIH in support of biomedical research. At the same time, NIH research was increasingly directed by Congress toward particular diseases. Although President Richard M. Nixon declared war on cancer in ...

Nobel Prize in Biomedical Research

Nobel Prize in Biomedical Research   Reference library

J. Rogers Hollingsworth and Ellen Jane Hollingsworth

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Foundation and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for funding. With competition for funding increasing, scientists became discouraged with pursuing high-risk research. However, by the end of the twentieth century, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute funded a great deal of high-risk research and a significant number of Hughes investigators have received Nobel Prizes for biomedical research. Research organizations. Previous studies have identified several characteristics of research organizations facilitating the kind of major discoveries that often result...

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