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Charles Evans Hughes

Subject: Law

(b. Glen Falls, New York, 11 Apr. 1862; d. Osterville, Massachusetts, 27 Aug. 1948) US; Governor of New York 1906–10, Republican presidential candidate 1916 Hughes, the son of a ...

Hughes, Charles Evans

Hughes, Charles Evans (1862–1948)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
467 words

...Government, Executive Branch: Department of State ; Foreign Relations ; New Deal Era, The ; Progressive Era . Merlo J. Pusey , Charles Evans Hughes , 2 vols., 1951. Betty Glad , Charles Evans Hughes and the Illusions of Innocence , 1966. Robert F. Wesser , Charles Evans Hughes: Politics and Reform in New York, 1905–1910 , 1967. David J. Danelski and Joseph S. Tulchin , eds., The Autobiographical Notes of Charles Evans Hughes , 1973. Gary B....

Baptists

Baptists   Reference library

William H. Brackney

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Southern Baptist Alliance ( 1986 ) and the Cooperative Baptist Fellowship ( 1991 ). Baptists contributed leaders to various avenues of American life, including four U.S. presidents ( Warren Harding , Harry S. Truman , Jimmy Carter , and Bill Clinton ); Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes ; the Social Gospel theologian Walter Rauschenbush ; and the civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. [ See also African American Thought and Culture ; Antislavery and Proslavery ; Bible, The ; Great Awakening, First and Second ; King, Martin Luther, Jr. ; ...

Science

Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers, Simon Baatz, James Rodger Fleming, Judith R. Goodstein, Michael A. Dennis, Marcel Chotkowski LaFollette, and Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...patron of science after World War II, the National Institutes of Health ( NIH ), concentrated on the biomedical disciplines. A multimillion-dollar enterprise with ever-increasing budgets, the NIH set the tone of U.S. biomedical research. Only with the arrival of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's grants program in 1987 did a private institution rival NIH in support of biomedical research. At the same time, NIH research was increasingly directed by Congress toward particular diseases. Although President Richard M. Nixon declared war on cancer in ...

Technology and Culture

Technology and Culture   Reference library

Stephen P. Rice

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of California Press, 1992. Excellent sociological study of the rise of the telephone system. Flink, James J. The Automobile Age. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1988. Hughes, Thomas P. American Genesis: A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm, 1870–1970 . New York: Viking Press, 1989. Describes the broad cultural enthusiasm for technology from Edison to the space program. Hughes, Thomas P. Human-Built World: How to Think about Technology and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004. Useful reflections by a leading historian of...

Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States

Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
312 words

...for the Court, Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes said that the law failed to provide adequate guidance concerning what matters the codes would cover. As a result, the NIRA unconstitutionally delegated legislative power to the executive branch. Hughes further argued that the poultry code violated the commerce clause of the Constitution (art. I, sec. 8). According to past cases, Congress could only regulate intrastate activity having a “direct” impact on interstate commerce. The Schechters' local commercial activity, Hughes noted, was clearly “indirect.”...

West Coast Hotel Company v. Parrish

West Coast Hotel Company v. Parrish (1937)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
313 words

...The case was argued before the Supreme Court in December 1936 . Parrish's attorneys asked the Court to overrule precedents, such as Adkins v. Children's Hospital ( 1923 ), that had held minimum-wage laws unconstitutional. In his 5–4 majority opinion, Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes dismissed the notion of freedom of contract, holding that under their constitutional police powers, states had the authority to regulate wages and hours in the public interest. Despite a spirited dissent by Justice George Sutherland on behalf of the conservative...

Washington Naval Arms Conference, The

Washington Naval Arms Conference, The (1921–1922)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
385 words

...shifted to the new League of Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, called the conference. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes electrified the delegates at the opening session on 12 November 1921 by proposing a ten-year naval building “holiday,” along with scrapping existing ships and others planned or under construction. The goal, he announced, was to prevent a naval arms race in the Pacific. Serving the cause of both peace and budgetary restraint, Hughes's plan was incorporated into the Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty (often called the Washington...

Harding, Warren G.

Harding, Warren G. (1865–1923)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
477 words

...—reflected a solidly conservative approach. A lax administrator and indecisive leader, Harding relied heavily on his appointees, some of whom achieved notable success. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes initiated the pathbreaking Washington Naval Arms Conference and improved relations with Latin America. Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon ( 1855–1937 ), with Charles Dawes ( 1865–1951 ), director of the newly created Budget Bureau, helped fuel prosperity after a downturn in 1921 by a program of tax- and spending-cuts and federal-debt reduction....

Coolidge, Calvin

Coolidge, Calvin (1872–1933)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
452 words

...economically depressed farmers. In foreign policy, the Washington Naval Arms Conference of 1922 , an early arms-control effort negotiated by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes , temporarily slowed an arms race among the world's naval powers. In general, however, Coolidge continued the nation's post– World War I retreat from world affairs. Accepting a plan devised by Vice President Charles G. Dawes ( 1865–1951 ), the Coolidge administration somewhat scaled back the disastrous reparation payments that the 1919 Versailles treaty had imposed on...

American Bar Association.

American Bar Association.   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
429 words

...the independence of the judiciary, and, in 1936 , adopted a new constitution making it a more representative organization. ABA Presidents during these years included Elihu Root , secretary of war under President Theodore Roosevelt ; President William Howard Taft ; and Charles Evans Hughes . Experiencing rapid growth in the mid-1900s, the ABA addressed issues ranging from President Franklin Delano Roosevelt 's controversial Supreme Court reorganization plan to the civil rights movement . During this time, the ABA also began reviewing the qualifications of...

Brandeis, Louis

Brandeis, Louis (1856–1941)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
464 words

...confirmed and served for twenty-three years. He advocated judicial self-restraint in cases involving state economic regulation , urging deference to legislative policy judgments. Usually in dissent during the chief justiceships of William Howard Taft ( 1921–1930 ) and Charles Evans Hughes ( 1930–1941 ), he repeated his Brandeis-brief technique, amassing facts and statistics to demonstrate that the legislative judgment was reasonable. Believing that the diversity-of-citizenship jurisdiction of the federal courts permitted large corporations to evade state...

National Conference for Community and Justice

National Conference for Community and Justice   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
583 words

...and to create less confusion about it being an interfaith organization,” according to its Web site (National Conference for Community and Justice). The NCCJ's founders included Benjamin Cardozo , Jane Addams , Roger Williams Strauss , and the U.S. Supreme Court justice Charles Evans Hughes. In 1933 the Tolerance Trio, composed of Rabbi Morris S. Lazaron , Father John Ross , and the Reverend Everette R. Clinchy , traveled throughout the United States asking people to embrace intergroup understanding. In the 1930s and 1940s the NCCJ religious groups...

Baptists.

Baptists.   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
648 words

...Southern Baptist Alliance ( 1986 ) and the Cooperative Baptist Fellowship ( 1991 ). Baptists contributed leaders to various avenues of American life, including four U.S. presidents (Warren Harding , Harry S. Truman , Jimmy Carter , and Bill Clinton ), Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes ; the Social Gospel theologian Walter Rauschenbush ; and the civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. See also African American Religion ; Antislavery ; Bill of Rights ; Great Awakening, First and Second ; Missionary Movement ; Protestantism ; Religion ; ...

Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada

Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
779 words

...matter to the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1938 , by a vote of 6 to 2, the Supreme Court found the actions of the University of Missouri to be a violation of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and therefore unconstitutional. Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes, writing for the majority, found that Missouri could not pass its responsibility on to another state, nor could it avoid its responsibility by promising to establish an African American law school at some undetermined date in the future. The case was then referred back to...

Anthropology

Anthropology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Black British History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,629 words

...land, or finders keepers), their bestial state excited social Darwinists: the swift demise of hundreds of thousands of Aborigines, hastened by smallpox, syphilis, warfare, and, in the case of Tasmania, genocide, seemed to prove the law of ‘survival of the fittest’. Robert Hughes outlines the sad story of apartheid, grave‐robbing, the mutilation and theft of corpses, all in the name of scientific enquiry, that followed the campaign to purge Tasmania of its Aboriginal population in the 1830s: there is today an ongoing battle to trace and have returned...

Roosevelt, Theodore

Roosevelt, Theodore (1858–1919)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,155 words

...party did not prosper and Roosevelt returned to his Republican roots soon after World War I broke out in 1914 . Unhappy with Wilson's neutrality, he urged the country to prepare for war and, if necessary, intervene on the side of the Allies. Roosevelt lost to Charles Evans Hughes in the race for the 1916 Republican nomination. Once the United States entered the war in April 1917 , Roosevelt sought to raise a volunteer division to fight in France. Wilson and the army refused. Theodore Roosevelt was the likely candidate for the Republican...

Tyson, Cicely

Tyson, Cicely (19 December 1933)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,859 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in recital halls throughout New York. Tyson demonstrated her talent and drive for perfection at an early age. Her diligence and hard work translated into young fame, but it was just a precursor to the success she would experience later in life. After Tyson graduated from Charles Evans Hughes High School in Manhattan, she worked as a secretary for the American Red Cross. It was at this time that her hairdresser, Walter Johnson, asked her to model his hairstyle in a show. Tyson’s striking presence and stunning beauty led Johnson to encourage her to pursue...

Visual Arts

Visual Arts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,499 words
Illustration(s):
2

...; Folklore ; Harlem Renaissance ; “Negro in Art” Symposium ; New Negro ; New Negro, The ; Photography and Photographers ; and biographical entries on figures mentioned in this article .] Bibliography Barnwell, Andrea D. The Walter O. Evans Collection of African American Art . Seattle, Wash.: Walter O. Evans Foundation for Art and Literature, 1999. Bearden, Romare , and Harry Henderson . A History of African American Artists: From 1792 to the Present . New York: Pantheon, 1993. Campbell, Mary Schmidt , David Driskell , David Levering Lewis , and...

Entertainment Industry and African Americans

Entertainment Industry and African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,935 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Bessie Smith , Billie Holiday , Ma Rainey , Howlin’ Wolf , Leadbelly , Muddy Waters , Joe Turner , and B. B. King ; for jazz, notable instrumentalists include John Coltrane , Bill Evans , Charles Mingus , Miles Davis , Charlie Parker , Duke Ellington , and Wynton Marsalis —who also plays classical music—and notable singers include Ray Charles (although he was too eclectic to categorize), Ella Fitzgerald , and Sarah Vaughan . But as Louis Armstrong's honest and powerful autobiography Satchmo ( 1954 ) reveals, the New Orleans music...

Jim Crow Laws

Jim Crow Laws   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,587 words

...of Missouri. The state of Missouri offered to pay Gaines's tuition at some other law school in another state and claimed that it intended to open a law school for African Americans some time in the future. The Supreme Court, in an opinion written by Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes , rejected the state's arguments, saying that the state had failed to meet the requirements of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. If there was no school for blacks in a state, then the state must allow blacks to attend the white school. This case, ...

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