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Charles Evans Hughes

Subject: Law

(b. Glen Falls, New York, 11 Apr. 1862; d. Osterville, Massachusetts, 27 Aug. 1948) US; Governor of New York 1906–10, Republican presidential candidate 1916 Hughes, the son of a ...

Washington Naval Arms Conference

Washington Naval Arms Conference   Reference library

Gary B. Ostrower

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...shifted to the new League of Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, called the conference. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes electrified the delegates at the opening session on 12 November 1921 by proposing a ten-year naval building “holiday,” along with scrapping existing ships and others planned or under construction. The goal, he announced, was to prevent a naval arms race in the Pacific. Serving the cause of both peace and budgetary restraint, Hughes's plan was incorporated into the Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty (often called the Washington Treaty)....

Coolidge, Calvin

Coolidge, Calvin (1872–1933)   Reference library

David Sim

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...but simply that Coolidge did not advance a distinctive, coherent foreign policy during his time in office. Despite this, economic and political imperatives continued to drive American engagement with the wider world. Coolidge kept his predecessor's secretary of state, Charles Evans Hughes, in that post until 1925 , when he replaced him with a surprising choice, Frank B. Kellogg . Coolidge took great interest in diplomatic appointments, and it was during his presidency that Congress passed the Rogers Act of 1924 . This created the United States Foreign...

Kellogg, Frank B.

Kellogg, Frank B. (1856–1937)   Reference library

Robert David Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to Communism. Kellogg remained in public life as U.S. ambassador to Britain, though his greatest impact on foreign policy began in 1925 when President Calvin Coolidge recalled him from London to replace Charles Evans Hughes as secretary of state. With Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover concerning himself with European matters, and with Hughes's so-called Washington system still governing U.S. relations with East Asia, Kellogg focused on Latin America. Championing a strongly pro-business vision of international law and lacking much background knowledge...

The League of Nations

The League of Nations (1919–46)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...all formal association with it throughout the 1920s, even, for example, when promulgating the Dawes Plan of 1924 , the effort to compose Europe's reparations–war debt tangle. Yet, in this endeavor, the League undoubtedly facilitated Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes 's labors. Then, too, Hughes staunchly (if ineffectively) advocated American membership in the World Court. The United States further underscored its ambivalence in the salutary achievement of the Washington Naval Conference of 1921–22 as well as in the innocuous Kellogg‐Briand Pact of...

State, U.S. Secretaries of

State, U.S. Secretaries of   Reference library

Edward S. Mihalkanin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...collaborations in U.S. diplomatic history. President Warren G. Harding ( 1921–1923 ) gave complete control of U.S. foreign policy to his esteemed secretary of state Charles Evans Hughes ( 1921–1925 ). Hughes's diplomatic achievements at the Washington Naval Arms Conference ( 1921–1922 ) were entirely his own. Hughes's prestige was so great that Mrs. Harding asked Hughes to help the president with domestic issues, but the secretary rarely participated in domestic-policy discussions. President Harry S. Truman had the highest respect for his third...

State, U.S. Department of

State, U.S. Department of   Reference library

Robert David Johnson and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., proved ineffectual because Wilson, advised by Colonel Edward M. House , essentially acted as his own secretary of state, an approach taken by other strong presidents as well. Despite congressional criticism, the State Department regained prestige in the 1920s under Charles Evans Hughes , Frank Kellogg , and Henry Stimson , one of the nation's most prescient diplomats. The freewheeling presidential style of Franklin Delano Roosevelt again lessened the department's influence, even as Cordell Hull became the longest serving secretary of state in...

Wilson, Woodrow

Wilson, Woodrow (1856–1924)   Reference library

John Milton Cooper

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...knew that the reduced threat of war with Germany was only a remission. He regarded the situation as so perilous that if he lost the election, he planned to appoint his Republican opponent, Charles Evans Hughes , secretary of state, thus putting Hughes second in line of succession; then Wilson would have the vice president resign and subsequently resign himself, and Hughes would thereby become president immediately, rather than wait for the inauguration on 4 March. Once Wilson knew that he had been reelected, he launched a peace offensive. He sent a public...

Interwar Period, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the

Interwar Period, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the   Reference library

Justus D. Doenecke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Britain, and France pledged themselves to consult one another should their possessions be threatened. The United States undertook no obligation: anti-interventionists in Congress made sure that no commitments to armed force were involved. Spearheaded by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes , the conference also drafted the Five-Power Treaty, signed by the United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy, that established a naval-tonnage ratio for battleships of 5 to 5 to 3 to 1.67 to 1.67. The treaty eliminated some thirty ships under American construction,...

World War I (1914–1918)

World War I (1914–1918)   Reference library

Timothy J. Lynch, Volker R. Berghahn, John Whiteclay Chambers, David R. Woodward, Ronald Schaffer, Lloyd E. Ambrosius, and Robert H. Ferrell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...association of nations, a theme that complemented his peace platform. On Election Day, a coalition of liberal reformers, progressive internationalists, and socialists swelled the normal Democratic vote. By a narrow margin Wilson prevailed over his Republican challenger, Charles Evans Hughes . Although the election may have constituted a referendum on progressivism and peace, American neutrality remained fragile. The best way to avoid war, Wilson reasoned, was to bring about a negotiated settlement between the warring alliances. Twice, in 1915 and 1916 , he...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...Andres S . “ The King and His Cult: The Axe-Hammer from Sutton Hoo and Its Implications for the Concept of Sacral Leadership in Early Medieval Europe. ” Antiquity 80 (2006): 880–893. Evans, Stephen . The Heroic Poetry of Dark-Age Britain: An Introduction to Its Dating, Composition, and Use as a Historical Source . Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1997. Evans, Stephen . Lords of Battle: Image and Reality of the Comitatus in Dark-Age Britain . Woodbridge, U.K.: Boydell, 1997. Fraser, James E . The Battle of Dunnichen, 685 . Stroud, U.K.: Tempus,...

Tactics

Tactics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
9,854 words

...stubborn and skillful Edward Hughes in 1782 and 1783 . They fought five times off the southeast coast of India with forces more or less equal in strength—eight to twelve ships of the line on each side. Under consummate leadership, both sides fought so doggedly and evenly that today it is still hard to declare winners. Suffren exhibited tactical inventiveness that, to his consternation, was often beyond the skills of his captains to execute, perhaps because of an outlook bred by two generations of defensive-mindedness. Hughes’s better captains held their...

Navigational Instruments

Navigational Instruments   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
30,532 words
Illustration(s):
5

... A History of the Practice of Navigation . 2d ed. Glasgow: Brown, Son and Ferguson, 1983. Hine, Alfred . Magnetic Compasses and Magnetometers . Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1968. Hitchins, H. L., and W. E. May. From Lodestone to Gyro-Compass . London: Hutchinson, 1952. Hughes, Thomas Parke . Elmer Sperry: Inventor and Engineer . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1971. Needham, Joseph . Science and Civilisation in China . Vol. 4, part 1, Physics/, and Vol. 4, part 3, Civil Engineering and Nautics. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press,...

Roosevelt, Theodore

Roosevelt, Theodore   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...Moose, party but came in second to Woodrow Wilson . From 1912 on, he wrote voluminously, explored Brazil, and advocated military preparedness as World War I loomed, criticizing pacifists and advocating universal conscription. He supported Charles Evans Hughes for president in 1916 because he though Hughes would better prepare the nation for the inevitability of war. He eventually supported the League of Nations , although he continued to believe that U.S. military leadership was essential to world peace. Roosevelt was, at forty-two, the youngest...

USA

USA   Reference library

David M. Kennedy, D'Ann Campbell, Richard Jensen, Richard Chapman, D'Ann Campbell, Richard Jensen, I. C. B. Dear, Shelby Stanton, David M. Kennedy, Jeffrey J. Safford, and Clayton R. Koppes

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
22,261 words
Illustration(s):
8

...urban voters, the president received 53.4% of the popular vote and 432 electoral votes. His victory over the Republican candidate Thomas E. Dewey ( 1902–71 ) was the narrowest of his four presidential contests and the closest election since Woodrow Wilson edged out Charles Evans Hughes in 1916 . With the election over and the war moving towards a climax, New Dealers expected Roosevelt to lead a revival of reform. Those expectations were doomed to disappointment. The elections of 1944 had strengthened Democratic control of Congress but had not...

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