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Catherine Bernard

(1663–1712?), French novelist, playwright, and poet. Born in Rouen to a comfortable Huguenot family, she moved to Paris to pursue her literary interests. Bernard wrote four ...

Visions in medieval art

Visions in medieval art   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Getty Mus., MSS 30–31), made by Simon Marmion ( c . 1425–89 ) for Margaret of York. Hagiographic works are particularly noted for their representation of visionary dreams, unambiguous signs of sainthood in the legends of Anthony , Augustine , Benedict , Bernard of Clairvaux , Bruno , Catherine of Siena , Dominic , Edward the Confessor , Romuald , and Thomas Aquinas , for example. Key moments in the life of St Francis are marked by visions, such as his hearing his calling fom the painted crucifix at S Damiano, Pope Innocent III ’s dream insisting...

Giovanni da Milano

Giovanni da Milano (fl c. 1346–69)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,226 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a terminus ad quem of 1363 since, according to the inscription, it was commissioned by Francesco da Tieri , prior of the Ospedale of Prato from 1334 until his death in 1363 . The polyptych shows the Virgin and Child Enthroned (in poor condition) flanked by SS Catherine and Bernard and SS Bartholomew and Barnabas (to whom the church of the Ospedale was dedicated). The main tier was supported by a double predella. The first, similar to that of Bernardo Daddi’s S Pancrazio polyptych Giovanni da Milano.   Man of Sorrows , tempera on panel,...

Kriechbaum

Kriechbaum   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...with the knights dated 1482 from the so-called Ulm ‘Fischkasten’ (Ulm, Ulm. Mus.), which suggests that Paul was trained in the workshops of Jörg Syrlin and Michel and Gregor Erhart at Ulm. Among his best works in this style, besides the figures of St Barbara and St Catherine in the pinnacle work at Kefermarkt, are two figures from Heiligenblut (Pöggstall, Parish Church) and the figures of the Virgin in Windigsteig and the Badisches Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe. The unusual movement in the pose of the Karlsruhe Virgin is still deeply indebted to the art...

Crucifix

Crucifix   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,618 words
Illustration(s):
1

...one in the Eastern Orthodox Church, following the iconoclastic controversies ( 726–843 ). Thus iconographic precedents for the suffering Christ existed in such Byzantine works as the narthex mosaic Crucifixion ( c. 1025 ) at Hosios Loukas, Phokis, and among the icons at St Catherine’s Monastery, Sinai. The development of the curved body of Christ in the 13th century was often accompanied by a change in the positioning of secondary figures. In Cimabue’s Santa Croce Crucifix of c. 1285 mentioned above, for example, the figures of the Virgin and St John...

Hardstones

Hardstones   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...de pierres gravées du cabinet de France aux XVIIIe et XIXe siècles’, Z. Kstgesch., lix/2 (1996), pp. 214–29 D. Scarisbrick : ‘The Arundel Gem Cabinet’, Apollo, cxliv (Aug 1996), pp. 45–8 D. Alcouffe : ‘Les collections de vases en pierres dures de Henri II et de Catherine de Médicis’, Henri II et les arts: Actes du colloques international, Ecole du Louvre et Musée national de la Renaissance, Ecouen, 25, 26 et 27 septembre 1997 , pp. 155–179 G. Kornbluth : ‘Carolingian Engraved Gems: “Golden Rome Is Reborn?”’, Engraved Gems: Survivals and Revivals...

Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of

Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Bib. Capitolare, MS. 6) seems to be the work of Venetian and French artists working jointly under Byzantine influence. Icons painted at St Jean d’Acre, at St Catherine’s Monastery, Sinai, and elsewhere in the Crusader sphere of influence demonstrate the strength and longevity of both the Franco-Byzantine and Italo-Byzantine styles in the second half of the 13th century. A triptych now in St Catherine’s Monastery, Sinai, with the enthroned Virgin and Child in the centre and with scenes of the Life of the Virgin on the interior of the wings and saints on the...

Woodcut

Woodcut   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...designs by the Flemish artist Jean de Beaumetz, for printing images on either fabric or paper. There is documentary evidence for the production of images of saints in Venice (probably by means of woodblocks) from 1396 , when St Catherine of Siena ( 1347–80 ) was first venerated there. However, no late 14th-century image of St Catherine of Siena has survived. During the investigation into her possible canonization, evidence was presented that a devotee had arranged that an image of her, ‘easy to multiply on pieces of paper, should be shown with her attributes’...

Stained glass

Stained glass   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
11,937 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The Tree of Jesse window (before 1218 ) of Freiburg im Breisgau Cathedral and the windows of St Margarete, Ardagger ( 1226–41 ), used armatures that followed the medallions. Alternating round and half-round panels surrounded by wide, curving lattice, as seen in the St Catherine window ( 1180 ) of Angers Cathedral, are typical of later work. Around 1200 in France and England curvilinear armature patterns were associated with the most important programmes under construction. The choir windows at Bourges ( c. 1200–14 ), like those at Canterbury ( c. ...

Lorenzo Monaco

Lorenzo Monaco (1370–75)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...see Eisenberg, pp. 138–45.) Of generally inferior quality compared with its prototype, it demonstrates the popularity of Lorenzo’s style with a segment of the artistic public, and the way in which that style was treated by his immediate following. The Annunciation with SS Catherine of Alexandria, Anthony Abbot, Proculus, and Francis of Assisi ( c. 1418 ; Florence, Accad. B.A. & Liceo A.) develops Lorenzo’s use of complex rhythms and lyrically graceful figures. The Adoration of the Magi (Florence, Uffizi), of uncertain provenance, dates from the early...

Duccio (di Buoninsegna)

Duccio (di Buoninsegna) (fl 1278)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
8,351 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the Body of the Virgin to the Tomb , which were back-to-back, have not been truncated like the rest of the scenes. The main front panel (Siena, Mus. Opera Duomo) shows the Virgin and Child seated on a marble throne inlaid with cosmati, surrounded by 20 angels and SS Catherine, Paul, John the Baptist, Peter, and Agnes. Kneeling before them are the patron saints of Siena—SS Ansanus, Sabinus, Crescentius, and Victor. The strong civic theme, typical of commissions in Siena, which was dedicated to the Virgin, is further emphasized in the inscription...

London

London   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
18,800 words
Illustration(s):
1

...reduction of their mass. The west gable (1735) and towers (1734–45) are by Nicholas Hawksmoor (1661/2–1736). In 1503–9 the early 13th-century Lady Chapel was replaced by a new chapel intended to contain the shrine of the canonized Henry VI together with the tombs of his mother, Catherine of Valois (1401–37), and Henry VII, his wife, Elizabeth of York ( d 1503), and his mother, Margaret Beaufort. The campaign for Henry VI’s canonization languished, and his body remained buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle. The internal elevations of the Westminster...

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