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Catherine Bernard

(1663–1712?), French novelist, playwright, and poet. Born in Rouen to a comfortable Huguenot family, she moved to Paris to pursue her literary interests. Bernard wrote four ...

Catherine of Siena

Catherine of Siena  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1347(1333?)–1380),mystic member of the Dominican Third Order; since 1970, Doctor of the Church. The youngest of the twenty or more children of a Sienese dyer, Giacomo Benincasa, Catherine from an ...
Jean Mabillon

Jean Mabillon  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1632–1707), Maurist scholar. He entered the Benedictine abbey of Saint-Rémy at Reims in 1653, but in 1664 was sent to Saint-Germain-des-Prés to help edit texts. Probably the most erudite of the ...
Catherine of Siena

Catherine of Siena   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (5 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
926 words

...with its excessive French influence in the Curia. In 1376 , on the same day that Gregory left Avignon by water for Rome, Catherine and her followers began the same journey by road. The two parties met in Genoa, but Catherine then went to Florence, still rent by factions and violence. In 1378 , after the death of Gregory XI, occurred the Great Schism, when Urban VI was elected pope in Rome and a rival set up in Avignon. Catherine wrote frequent letters both to Urban to moderate his harshness and to various European rulers and cardinals urging them to...

mysticism, mystical theology

mysticism, mystical theology   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,607 words

..., The Varieties of Religious Experience (Gifford Lectures for 1901–2; 1902), 379–429; F. von Hügel , The Mystical Element of Religion as studied in Saint Catherine of Genoa and her Friends (2 vols., 1908); E. Underhill , Mysticism (1911); id. , The Mystics of the Church [1925], and other works; [E.] C. Butler, OSB , Western Mysticism: The Teaching of SS Augustine, Gregory and Bernard on Contemplation and the Contemplative Life (1922; 2nd edn., with ‘Afterthoughts’, 1927); E. Brunner , Die Mystik und das Wort: Der Gegensatz zwischen moderner...

Literature and The Bible

Literature and The Bible   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
17,570 words

...of Ephesus ( 431 ) as “God‐bearer” (Grk. theotokos ). By the twelfth century Bernard of Clairvaux ( 1090–1153 ) could exclaim, “De Maria numquam satis,” and medieval Christian writers seem to have taken this maxim to heart. There is an enormous and varied body of Marian literature, with famous tributes from writers from all over the Christian world, from Aimar, bishop of Le Puy (ca. 1087 ), author of the great hymn Salve, regina , to Dante (d. 1321 ), who has Bernard address Mary as, “Vergine madre, figlia di tuo figlio,” in the final canto of the...

saints and beati

saints and beati   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,207 words

...to the Early Christian Fathers, such as S. Gregory Nazianzus and S. Augustine. See also , for individual Saints, agatha , agnes , alban , ambrose , andrew , antoninus , antony , augustine , barnabas , bartholomew , benedict , bernard , bernardino , bonaventura , borommeo , bridget , bruno , catherine , cecilia , christopher , clare , clement , climacus , santi quattro coronati , cosmas and damian , cuthbert , denis , dominic , dorothy , eligius , elizabeth , eustace , francis , george , giles , gregory , helena , ...

Roman Catholic Religious Orders

Roman Catholic Religious Orders   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
5,144 words

...reform came through Saint Robert of Molesne (d. 1111 ) and Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (d. 1153 ). They broke with the mainstream Benedictines and founded the Cistercian Order at Citeaux in France. By this time, much of Europe had become farmland and the Cistercians moved out into wilder country. Their writings expressed a sense of movement from wilderness to paradise. They still followed the Benedictine Rule. Whereas the Desert Fathers saw beauty in an unspoiled wilderness, Saint Bernard emphasized the beauty of labor in preparing the fields. There should...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

Niels Peter Lemche, Jennifer A. Glancy, and Catherine Hezser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
12,308 words

...Early Church and Today . Minneapolis: Fortress, 2011. Gulak, Alexander . Das Urkundenwesen im Talmud: Im Lichte der griechisch-ägyptischen Papyri und des griechischen und römischen Rechts . Jerusalem: Mass, 1935. Hezser, Catherine . Jewish Slavery in Antiquity . New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005a. Hezser, Catherine . “ ‘The Slave of a Scholar Is Like a Scholar’: Stories about Rabbis and Their Slaves in the Babylonian Talmud.” In Creation and Composition: The Contribution of the Bavli Redactors (Stammaim) to the Aggada , edited by ...

Valois, House of

Valois, House of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,789 words

...essays deal with the government of the last Valois kings. Cloulas, Ivan . Catherine de Médicis . Paris, 1979. Denieul-Cormier, Anne . Wise and Foolish Kings: The First House of Valois, 1328–1498 . Garden City, N.Y., 1980. Interesting popular account of the early Valois kings. Kendall, Paul Muarray . Louis XI: The Universal Spider . Reprint, New York, 1986. Knecht R. J. Francis I . Cambridge, 1982. Labande-Mailfert, Yvonne . Charles VIII et son milieu . Paris, 1975. Quilliet, Bernard . Louis XII: Père du peuple . Paris, 1986. Sumption, Jonathan . The...

Mysticism

Mysticism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,258 words

...in late medieval mysticism, which tried to create new religious models that would make the ideal of perfection accessible in all walks of life. An example can be found in Catherine of Genoa ( 1447–1510 ), a married contemplative who devoted her life to care of the sick. Catherine wrote nothing, but her teachings were put together and eventually published ( 1551 ) by her followers. Catherine's brief texts illustrate a powerful and, in some ways, novel form of mysticism. The stress on the centrality of purgation in the path to perfection links her with Juan...

Vows and Oaths

Vows and Oaths   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,564 words

...James A. The Votive Obligations of Crusaders: The Development of a Canonistic Doctrine. In The Crusades, Holy War and Canon Law , pp. 77–118. London, 1991. This chapter traces the development of legal doctrines concerning the enforcement of crusading vows. Capelle, Germaine Catherine . Le voeu d'obéissance dès origines au XIIe siècle: Étude juridique . Bibliothèque d'histoire du droit et droit romain, vol. 2. Paris, 1959. Survey of juristic treatments of the monastic vow of obedience. David, M. Parjure et mensonge dans le Décret de Gratien . Studia...

Béarn

Béarn   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,729 words

...from east to west). In the strict sense (i.e., without counting Soule or Basse-Navarre), it extends essentially over the Gaves of Aspe and Osseau, which became the Gave d'Oloron at Sauveterre, and the Gave de Pau (Pau, Lescar, Orthez). In 1512 the sovereigns of Béarn, Catherine de Foix and Jean d'Albret , lost the territory of Haute Navarre (Upper Navarre), which was soon after incorporated into the kingdom of Castile. Military expeditions and negotiations failed to change this state of affairs. Later religious politics and the defense of the...

Medieval Literature

Medieval Literature   Reference library

Brian Murdoch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and the Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Religion, Art & Architecture
Length:
6,849 words

... Kranz, Gisbert . Europas christliche Literatur von 500 bis 1500 . Paderborn, Germany: Schöningh Verlag, 1968. German introduction to a wide range of European Christian material, explained simply. Leclerq, Jean . The Love of Learning and the Desire for God . Translated by Catherine Misrahi . New York: Fordham University Press, 1961. A survey of the monastic culture that lies behind much medieval literary Bible adaptation. Masser, Achim . Bibel- und Legendenepik des deutschen Mittelalters . Berlin: Schmidt, 1976. A clear introduction to the use of biblical...

Japanese Art

Japanese Art   Reference library

Pamela D. Winfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and the Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Religion, Art & Architecture
Length:
6,801 words

...audiences. This resulted in both elite and vernacular Christian art in Japan, though the distinctions between the two were often blurred. At the elite level, the Jesuits first adopted a trickle-down approach and recruited among the Japanese aristocracy first. In 1561 , Queen Catherine of Portugal offered an image of the Virgin and Child to a certain Yukinaga of Uta Province, while another went to Hirado in Kyīshī that same year. At the same time, the demand for European painting became so great that the Jesuit seminaries in Arima, Azuchi, and Amakusa began...

Magistracy

Magistracy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
15,074 words

...within their competence all the matters concerning the Reformation, leaving to the ecclesiastical judges the jurisdiction over clerics promoted to holy orders. Apart from this decline of the inquisitorial institution, one notices a new orientation in religious policy when Catherine de Médicis , the queen mother, began to take an active part in government. A new era began in March 1560 with the Edict of Amboise, an edict of amnesty providing for “pardon, remission, and general absolution”—abjuration not being required—for those who had been accused...

Renaissance Visual Art

Renaissance Visual Art   Reference library

Diane Apostolos-Cappadona

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and the Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Religion, Art & Architecture
Length:
8,807 words

...of Rome, which was dealt a serious challenge by the Holy Roman Emperor and has been interpreted as a public advance of the Reformation cause. As a footnote to history, Clement continued to fear and mistrust Charles V, so when Henry VIII requested an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, the emperor’s niece, the pope denied the petition. As a result, Henry established the Church of England as a religious authority separate from Rome and further advanced the Reformation against the Church of Rome. Biblical Topics in Early and High Renaissance Art....

Legal Status

Legal Status   Reference library

Julye Bidmead, F. Rachel Magdalene, Lauren Caldwell, Robert N. Stegmann, Judith Hauptman, and David M. Reis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,375 words

... Hauptman, Judith . Rereading the Rabbis: A Woman’s Voice . New York: Perseus, 1998. Hauptman, Judith . “Women and Torah Study in the Talmudic Period.” Jewish Studies Internet Journal 9 (2010): 249–292. http://www.biu.ac.il/JS/JSIJ/9-2010/Hauptman.pdf Hezser, Catherine . The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Daily Life in Roman Palestine . New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Ilan, Tal . Jewish Women in Greco-Roman Palestine . Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 1995. Labovitz, Gail . Marriage and Metaphor: Constructions of Gender in Rabbinic Literature...

Popular Religion

Popular Religion   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
19,065 words

...between popular and elite religion. Reinburg, Virginia . Liturgy and the Laity in Late Medieval and Reformation France . Sixteenth Century Journal 23.3 (Fall 1992), 526–547. A masterful, brief explication of the many paraliturgical elements in Christian devotion. Vincent, Catherine . Des charités bien ordonnées: Les confréries normandes de la fin du 13e siècle au début du 16e . Paris, 1988. The best discussion of the place of confraternities in the religious life of a region. Alan G. Arthur Popular Religion in England and Scotland To study popular...

Natural Space and Religion in North America

Natural Space and Religion in North America   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Religion in America

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,960 words

...University Press, 2014). 28. Anna L. Peterson , “Talking the Walk: A Practice-Based Environmental Ethic as Grounds for Hope,” in Ecospirit: Religions and Philosophies for the Earth , eds. Laurel Kearns and Catherine Keller (New York: Fordham University Press, 2007), 45–62, 47. See also Bron Taylor , Gretel Van Wieren , and Bernard Zaleha , “The Greening of Religion Hypothesis (Part Two): Assessing the Data from Lynn White Jr., to Pope Francis,” Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture 10, no. 3 (2016): 306–378; Daniel Cox , ...

Nature and Religion in America

Nature and Religion in America   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Religion in America

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,567 words

...center of a crowded cosmos of natural and spiritual beings. Through myth, ritual, and structured space, communities and individuals strove to ensure harmony, balance, and relationship with this larger network of relations. At the same time, the harmony managed through religion, Catherine Albanese writes, may be seen as “an attempt to control the powers that impinged on life as native peoples knew it.” 6 The autochthonous dimension of Native American religions became tragically clear during the 19th century , when the American government forcibly removed Native...

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