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Catherine Bernard

(1663–1712?), French novelist, playwright, and poet. Born in Rouen to a comfortable Huguenot family, she moved to Paris to pursue her literary interests. Bernard wrote four ...

Ex Voto

Ex Voto   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
2,675 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in ex voto offerings as Our Lady of Health, Our Lady of the Holy Rosary, Our Lady of Sorrows, Our Lady of the Light, Our Lady of the Apparition, or Our Lady of Consolation. Less frequent are devotions directed to other saints, such as Saint Nicholas , Saint Joseph , or Saint Catherine , and these often appear in the company of the Madonna. Only a few ex voto paintings carry the image of Jesus Christ, crowned with thorns, carrying the cross, crucified, or risen with the cross in hand. Paintings were commissioned by individuals or purchased, often from...

Atlantic, Battle of the

Atlantic, Battle of the   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
2,777 words

...Press, 1994 Ireland, Bernard . Battle of the Atlantic . Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2003. Milner, Marc . Battle of the Atlantic . Stroud, U.K.: Tempus; St. Catherines, Ontario: Vanwell, 2003. Rahn, Wener . The Atlantic in the Strategic Perspective of Hitler and Roosevelt, 1940–1941. In To Die Gallantly, The Battle of the Atlantic , edited by Timothy J. Runyan and Jan M. Copes , pp. 3–21. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1994 Salewski, Michael . Die deutsche Seekreigsleitung 1935–1945 . 3 vols. Frankfurt am Main: Bernard and Graefe,...

Navies, Great Powers

Navies, Great Powers   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
52,890 words
Illustration(s):
5

...thousand, and growth was sustained into the 1750s. Not all ships were active, but by the war against Prussia of 1757–1762 the Russians could mobilize more than twenty ships of the line. This force was used defensively, but when Russia declared war on Turkey in 1768 , Catherine II (also called “the Great”) had a wider strategic vision. Admiral Count Aleksei Orlov was ordered to sail from the Baltic to the eastern Mediterranean with a powerful squadron officered by Scottish sailors. With British logistical support the Russians established a base at...

France

France   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
31,203 words
Illustration(s):
6

...Auguste . Paris: Champion, 1913. Bachrach, Bernard S . “L’art de la guerre Angevin.” In Plantagenêts et Capétiens: Confrontations et héritages , edited by Martin Aurell and Noël-Yves Tonnerre , pp. 267–284. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2006. Bachrach, Bernard S . Fulk Nerra, the Neo-Roman Consul, 987–1040 . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. Bachrach, Bernard S. “ MedievalSiege Warfare: A Reconnaissance. ” Journal of Military History 58, no. 1 (January 1994): 119–133. Bachrach, Bernard S. Warfare and Military Organization in...

Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
24,715 words
Illustration(s):
4

...the Crusades . London and New York: Hambledon and London, 2003. Holmes, Catherine . “Byzantium’s Eastern Frontier in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries”. In Medieval Frontiers: Concepts and Practices , edited by David Abulafia and Nora Berend , pp. 83–104. Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate, 2002. Holmes, Catherine . “Political Elites in the Reign of Basil II”. In Byzantium in the Year 1000 , edited by Paul Magdalino , pp. 35–69. Leiden, Netherlands, and Boston: Brill, 2003. Holmes, Catherine . “The Rhetorical Structures of John Skylitzes’ Synopsis Historion ”. In...

Iberia

Iberia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
36,499 words
Illustration(s):
6

...than our period of consideration ( 1100 ), the campaigns by the Crown of Aragon. Bibliography Ayalon, David , ed. Islam and the Abode of War: Military Slaves and Islamic Adversaries . Aldershot, U.K.: Variorum, 1994. Bachrach, Bernard S. Armies and Politics in the Early Medieval West . Aldershot, U.K.: Variorum, 1993. Bachrach, Bernard S. “ Charlemagne’s Cavalry: Myth and Reality. ” Military Affairs 47, no. 4 (December 1983): 181–187. Bull, Marcus Graham . Knightly Piety and the Lay Response to the First Crusade: The Limousin and Gascony, c. 970 – c....

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...Adversaries at War , edited by Richard Abels and Bernard Bachrach . Woodbridge, U.K.: Boydell, 2001. Abels, Richard P . Lordship and Military Obligation in Anglo-Saxon England . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. Bachrach, Bernard . “Medieval Military Historiography”. In Companion to Historiography , edited by Michael Bentley . London: Routledge, 1997. Bachrach, Bernard . “ Medieval Siege Warfare: A Reconnaissance. ” Journal of Military History 58 (1994): 119–133. Bachrach, Bernard . “The Military Administration of the Norman Conquest”....

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