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Catherine Bernard

(1663–1712?), French novelist, playwright, and poet. Born in Rouen to a comfortable Huguenot family, she moved to Paris to pursue her literary interests. Bernard wrote four ...

British Literature

British Literature   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,690 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to use the setting of the Napoleonic Wars: Bernard Cornwell (pseudonym of Bernard Wiggins), creator of Richard Sharpe; C. S. Forester (pseudonym of Cecil Louis Troughton Smith), creator of Horatio Hornblower; Alexander Kent (pseudonym of Douglas Reeman), creator of Richard Bolitho ; Patrick O'Brian (pseudonym of Richard Patrick Russ), creator of the Aubrey/Maturin series; and C. Northcote Parkinson , creator of Richard Delancey . Other writers of historical fiction include Charlotte Bingham , Catherine Cookson , Margaret Drabble , George...

French Union

French Union   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
997 words

...Paris: Fayard, 1991. Droz, Bernard . Histoire des décolonisations au xx e siècle. Paris: Seuil, 2006. Liauzu, Claude , ed. Dictionnaire de la colonisation française . Paris: Larousse, 2007. Mus, Paul . Le destin de l᾽'Union française, de l'᾽Indochine à l'᾽Afrique . Paris: Seuil, 1954. Pervillé, Guy . De l᾽'empire français à la décolonisation . Paris: Hachette, 1991. Revue d᾽'économie politique. L᾽'économie de l᾽'Union française d᾽'outre-mer . Paris: Sirey, 1952, 1954. Thobie, Jacques , Gilbert Meynier , Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch , and ...

Turkey

Turkey   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,687 words
Illustration(s):
1

...world shifted from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, and with that the military balance also changed. The Ottomans continued to hold their own into the eighteenth century, even besieging Vienna for the second time in 1683 . However, the loss of Muslim Crimea to Russia's Catherine the Great and the Treaty of Kücük Kaynarca ( 1774 ), followed by Napoleon's invasion of Egypt ( 1798 ), exposed the urgent need for reform so as to create a modern state. The opposition of the Janissary army in alliance with the ulema, the clerical class, made structural reform...

Climate Change and the American City

Climate Change and the American City   Reference library

Andrew Hurley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,328 words

...Great Heat Wave of 1896 and the Making of Theodore Roosevelt . New York: Basic Books, 2010. McKelvey, Blake . Snow in the Cities: A History of America’s Urban Response . Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 1995. Mergen, Bernard . Snow in America . Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997. Mergen, Bernard . Weather Matters: An American Cultural History since 1900 . Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 2008. Needham, Andrew . Power Lines: Phoenix and the Making of the Modern Southwest . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2014...

Urban Renewal

Urban Renewal   Reference library

Christopher Klemek

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,313 words

...and in many ways most trenchant critiques originated from policy-oriented intellectuals within the establishment who hitherto advocated, and in some cases even crafted, the urban renewal programs in question. Arguably the first to cry foul, already by the late 1950s, was Catherine Bauer, disappointed with the “dreary deadlock” that beset the public housing programs she vigorously promoted after 1920 . Others who began to swing into an opposition posture focused on the pain of dislocations imposed by slum clearance, highway construction, and urban...

Juvenile Justice in the United States

Juvenile Justice in the United States   Reference library

David S. Tanenhaus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
6,771 words

...by the time that many “Get Tough” on juvenile crime laws were being adopted in the mid-1990s, the nation’s rate of youth violence had already begun to drop dramatically. 49 This decline opened up the possibility of refocusing juvenile justice policies. The John T. and Catherine D. MacArthur Foundation, for example, spent $150 million to support research on adolescent development and juvenile justice in order to develop sound public policies and model programs that addressed the related issues of competency and culpability. 50 Beginning in 2005 , chil...

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