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Catherine Bernard

(1663–1712?), French novelist, playwright, and poet. Born in Rouen to a comfortable Huguenot family, she moved to Paris to pursue her literary interests. Bernard wrote four ...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...inspect a changing display of dinner services laid out on tables and vases set against the walls. The urbane presence of his partner Bentley undoubtedly contributed to its success. In 1774 visitors flocked to see the 952-piece dinner and dessert service ordered by the Empress Catherine of Russia and decorated with hand-painted views of English architectural landmarks and beauty spots. In 1790 they came to marvel at the copy made in Jasper after the Roman cut-glass Barberini or Portland Vase. The original had been acquired by Sir William Hamilton , who sold...

Catherine II

Catherine II (1729–1796)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,586 words

...it the finest monument to the age. He continued to laud Catherine's generosity, culture, and intelligence for the rest of his life. His influence on Catherine was profound—she called herself his écolière —and even more extraordinary was his influence on the educated Russians around her. By then, Moscow and St. Petersburg had more than a handful of secular poets, writers, and scientists who had read Voltaire, Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle , or Pierre Bayle in the original, but Catherine's approval of the sage of Ferney and the generous subsidies she...

Duguet, Jacques-Joseph

Duguet, Jacques-Joseph (1649–1733)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
674 words

...and his criticism of abuses. Further, his figurism continued to interest a society that was passionate over thinking about the future. [See also Jansenism ; Judaism ; Revealed Religion ; and Roman Catholicism .] Chételat, Paul . Étude sur Du Guet . Paris, 1879. Maire, Catherine . De la cause de Dieu à la cause de la Nation: Le jansénisme au XVIII e siècle. Paris, 1998. Sainte-Beuve, Charles-Augustin . Port-Royal . 5th ed. Paris, 1888. See vol. 6, pp. 3–82. Saint-Simon, Louis de Rouvroy, duc de . Mémoires . Paris, 1856, vol. 3, pp. 78–82. Savon,...

Helvétius, Claude-Adrien

Helvétius, Claude-Adrien (1715–1771)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,425 words

...enabled him to give pensions to impoverished writers such as Pierre de Marivaux and Bernard Joseph Saurin . In the early 1750s, he harbored Charles Edward Stuart , the Young Pretender, during his secret visits to Paris. Between 1749 and 1751 , Helvétius secured a post as major-domo to Queen Marie Leszczynska and bought two chateaux (Voré and Lumigny). He quit his post as a tax-farmer and married the beautiful, high-spirited, poor but noble Anne-Catherine de Ligniville ( 1722–1800 ). Their portraits were painted by Louis-Michel Van Loo and...

Fontenelle, Bernard le Bovier de

Fontenelle, Bernard le Bovier de (1657–1757)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,510 words

...acceptance in France. He vigorously championed the new calculus in a Préface to L'Hôpital's Analyse des infiniment petits ( 1696 ). Fontenelle's career as a belletrist continued in the meantime, with the composition of opera librettos and tragedies coauthored with Catherine Bernard , and received its ultimate consecration when he was admitted to the French Academy in 1691 . Important as this election was, it was outstripped in significance by his appointment in 1697 as secrétaire perpétuel (permanent secretary) of a reorganized and revitalized...

Hardouin, Jean

Hardouin, Jean (1646–1729)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,380 words

...delle orazioni di Temistio . Archivum Historicum Societatis Jesu 43 (1974), 267–300. The only study of Hardouin's initial career. Neveu, Bruno . Érudition et religion aux XVII e et XVIII e siècles. Paris, 1994. Includes a brief but very lucid account of Hardouin. Northeast, Catherine M. The Parisian Jesuits and the Enlightenment, 1700–1762 . Oxford, 1991. A thorough study of Hardouin's impact on his fellow Jesuits, using previously unknown archival materials. Palmer, R. R. Catholics and Unbelievers in Eighteenth-Century France . Princeton, N.J., 1939....

Travel Literature

Travel Literature   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
5,030 words

...There was no problem with the comfort of accommodations when Catherine the Great sailed down the Dnieper River in 1787 to visit the Crimean Peninsula, recently annexed by Russia, but this internationally celebrated eighteenth-century voyage also involved concern for the civilized appearance of peoples and landscapes. This was the occasion for the creation of “Potemkin villages” by Prince Grigory Potemkin ; according to the French ambassador, Louis-Philippe de Ségur , who accompanied Catherine and helped to publicize her voyage, the banks of the Dnieper...

Physiocracy

Physiocracy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,041 words

...internationale de la physiocratie (XVIII e –XIX e ), edited by Bernard Delmas , Thierry Demals , and Philippe Steiner , pp. 421–439. Grenoble, 1995. Baker, Keith Michael . Representation. In The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture: The Political Culture of the Old Regime , edited by Keith Michael Baker , pp. 469–492. Oxford and New York, 1987. An important point of reference for the study of the representative theory in Physiocratic political thought. Delmas, Bernard , Thierry Demals , and Philippe Steiner , eds. La diffusion...

Jesuits

Jesuits   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
7,781 words

...Religion ; and Roman Catholicism .] Ceyssens, Lucien . Autour de l' Unigenitus . Louvain, 1987. Groethuysen, Bernard . Origines de l'esprit bourgeois en France, vol. 1, L'église et la bourgeoisie . Paris, 1927. Maire, Catherine . De la cause de Dieu à la cause de la nation: Le jansénisme au XVIII e siècle. Paris, 1998. Van Kley, Dale . The Jansenists and the Expulsion of the Jesuits from France, 1757–1765 . New Haven, Conn., 1975. Catherine Maire Translated from French by Betsy Wing Role in Publishing Publishing by the Society of Jesus, especially of...

Counter-Enlightenment

Counter-Enlightenment   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,283 words

...Espagne, 1734–1835 . Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century 261. Oxford, 1989. Mortier, Roland . Le “Tableau littéraire de la France au XVIII e siècle”: Un épisode de la “guerre philosophique” à l'Académie française sous l'Empire, 1804–1810. Brussels, 1972. Northeast, Catherine . The Parisian Jesuits and the Enlightenment, 1728–1762. Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century 288. Oxford, 1991. Useful synthesis of intellectual life in the Society of Jesus during the first half of the eighteenth century. O'Keefe, Cyril . Contemporary Reactions to...

National Churches

National Churches   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,542 words

...war of attrition, and Pope Clement XIV finally gave in to them in 1773 , when he promulgated the bull Dominus ac Redemptor , which dissolved the Jesuit order. It was paradoxically in the Protestant Prussia of Frederick II and within the Orthodox Russian empire of Catherine II that the Jesuits found refuge and waited for better times, whereas Lorenzo Ricci , the last general of the Society of Jesus, died in 1775 in the Castel Sant'Angelo prison. The papacy gave in to the demands of the secular monarchies, and the Jesuits were made convenient...

Translation

Translation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
6,029 words

...of translators. French-language editions of Enlightenment works were regularly published even in non-Francophone countries. Adam Smith read his French mentors in their own tongue, members of the Enlightenment circle in Milan devoured Voltaire and Diderot in French, and Catherine II of Russia plagiarized Montesquieu in the original. If the Enlightenment could be conducted in French (as some historians have pretended it was)—or, when need be, in English, a language well understood by Voltaire and studiously perused by Lessing—then why was translation a...

Universities

Universities   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
5,777 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of theology, law, and medicine were urged to abandon their emphasis on theoretical speculation and concentrate on inculcating their charges with practical and certain knowledge, wherever possible using more stimulating methods of teaching. As Diderot's reform plan, presented to Catherine the Great in 1775–1776 , makes particularly clear, the enlightened university was not to be an ivory tower but a school for good and useful citizens. Although these Enlightened critics gained the ear of many rulers and their advisers in the second half of the century, there was...

Journals, Newspapers, and Gazettes

Journals, Newspapers, and Gazettes   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
10,055 words

...granted a safe but not very wide berth for the High Enlightenment, but those who opposed it were far more effective at stating their ideas in periodicals than were the philosophes. Some of the most brilliant journalists of the age—notably P. F. G. Desfontaines and Elie-Catherine Fréron —espoused antiphilosophic ideas. There were also a number of periodicals circulated by religious groups, including the influential underground Jansenist paper, the Nouvelles Écclesiastiques , and the government's Gazette de France , which, despite its sympathy for the...

Tradition

Tradition   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
7,891 words

...their underlings. It was not legislation that makes men good, but a change of heart; that is more likely to be brought about by traditional religion and morals than by all the rationalizing thought of Locke, Newton, Voltaire, or those westernizers with whom Shcherbatov sat on Catherine's legislative commission of 1767 . After that, and the defeat it dealt him and his friends, he turned to history to find out more about the traditional Russia, which he continued to praise in preference to the modern world. He believed that Russian history, like all history,...

Valois, House of

Valois, House of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,789 words

...essays deal with the government of the last Valois kings. Cloulas, Ivan . Catherine de Médicis . Paris, 1979. Denieul-Cormier, Anne . Wise and Foolish Kings: The First House of Valois, 1328–1498 . Garden City, N.Y., 1980. Interesting popular account of the early Valois kings. Kendall, Paul Muarray . Louis XI: The Universal Spider . Reprint, New York, 1986. Knecht R. J. Francis I . Cambridge, 1982. Labande-Mailfert, Yvonne . Charles VIII et son milieu . Paris, 1975. Quilliet, Bernard . Louis XII: Père du peuple . Paris, 1986. Sumption, Jonathan . The...

Mysticism

Mysticism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,258 words

...in late medieval mysticism, which tried to create new religious models that would make the ideal of perfection accessible in all walks of life. An example can be found in Catherine of Genoa ( 1447–1510 ), a married contemplative who devoted her life to care of the sick. Catherine wrote nothing, but her teachings were put together and eventually published ( 1551 ) by her followers. Catherine's brief texts illustrate a powerful and, in some ways, novel form of mysticism. The stress on the centrality of purgation in the path to perfection links her with Juan...

Vows and Oaths

Vows and Oaths   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,564 words

...James A. The Votive Obligations of Crusaders: The Development of a Canonistic Doctrine. In The Crusades, Holy War and Canon Law , pp. 77–118. London, 1991. This chapter traces the development of legal doctrines concerning the enforcement of crusading vows. Capelle, Germaine Catherine . Le voeu d'obéissance dès origines au XIIe siècle: Étude juridique . Bibliothèque d'histoire du droit et droit romain, vol. 2. Paris, 1959. Survey of juristic treatments of the monastic vow of obedience. David, M. Parjure et mensonge dans le Décret de Gratien . Studia...

Béarn

Béarn   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,729 words

...from east to west). In the strict sense (i.e., without counting Soule or Basse-Navarre), it extends essentially over the Gaves of Aspe and Osseau, which became the Gave d'Oloron at Sauveterre, and the Gave de Pau (Pau, Lescar, Orthez). In 1512 the sovereigns of Béarn, Catherine de Foix and Jean d'Albret , lost the territory of Haute Navarre (Upper Navarre), which was soon after incorporated into the kingdom of Castile. Military expeditions and negotiations failed to change this state of affairs. Later religious politics and the defense of the...

Franklin, Benjamin

Franklin, Benjamin (1706–90)   Reference library

E. Philip Krider

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... (New York, 2009). Bell, Whitfield J., Jr. Patriot Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society , 3 vols (Philadelphia, 2006–10). Bowen, Catherine Drinker . The Most Dangerous Man in America: Scenes From the Life of Benjamin Franklin (Boston, 1974). Clark, Ronald W. Benjamin Franklin: A Biography (New York, 1983). Cohen, I. Bernard . Benjamin Franklin’s Science (Cambridge, MA, 1990). Devons, Samuel . “Benjamin Franklin as Experimental Philosopher,” American Journal of Physics 45 (1977): 1148–53. Dray, Philip...

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