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Catherine Bernard

(1663–1712?), French novelist, playwright, and poet. Born in Rouen to a comfortable Huguenot family, she moved to Paris to pursue her literary interests. Bernard wrote four ...

Spiritual direction

Spiritual direction   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
644 words

...spiritual advice addressed to individuals comprises letters of very personalized counsel as well as works aimed at a wider audience. Renowned among the former are letters of Ambrose , Jerome , Gregory the Great , Anselm of Canterbury and Catherine of Siena ; one example (among very many) of the latter is Bernard of Clairvaux 's De consideratione , ostensibly an offering of advice to Pope Eugenius III but also a veritable treatise on prelacy. The phenomenon of intentional relationships between guides and disciples is rooted in early monasticism ....

blood of Christ

blood of Christ   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
257 words

...as a substitution for Old Testament sacrifice. From the 11th century on, Christ’s wounds and blood became important motifs in popular piety. A phrase attributed to *Bernard of Clairvaux , and used by *Pope Clement VI in the *bull Unigenitus ( 1343 ), asserted that one drop of Christ’s blood was sufficient to redeem all humankind. *Visionaries such as *Peter Damian and *Catherine of Siena claimed to drink blood from Christ’s side. In the central MA, a number of sites, such as Weingarten, claimed to possess *relics of Christ’s blood. The 14th...

Saint-Maurice d'agaune

Saint-Maurice d'agaune   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
577 words

...to the Eastern practice of perpetual praise. Well situated on the Great St Bernard route, the establishment prospered; its abbots were at the same time bishops of Sion, which made a regime of exemption , which was contested up to the Valaisan revolution of 1798 , very theoretical. The Carolingian reform transformed the abbey into a community of secular canons under the leadership of a secular abbot responsible for military control of the Road from the Great St Bernard pass to Lac Léman. Saint-Maurice became one of the capitals of the second...

mysticism, Christian

mysticism, Christian   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
490 words

...Following monastic reform movements and a widespread renewal of religious life in the 12th century, the works of the *Cistercians (for example, *Bernard of Clairvaux ) and the Victorines, with their systematic ordering of the contemplative life, had far-reaching effects on mystical practice. After 1200 , writings by and about women mystics, such as *Birgitta of Sweden , *Julian of Norwich , and *Catherine of Siena , became more common, and mystical teaching spread to those outside the cloister. Other classic works in the mystical tradition include The...

way of the cross

way of the cross   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
484 words

...chronological route ended by prevailing over the old reverse route. J. M. Picard , “ Croix (chemin de) ”, DSp , 2, 2, 1953, 2576-2606. G. Bresc-Bautier , “ Les imitations du Saint-Sépulcre de Jérusalem (IXe-XVe siècle). Archéologie d'une dévotion ”, RHSp , 50, 1974, 319-342. Catherine...

Ecstasy

Ecstasy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
461 words

...of loving union with God, benefited from “spiritual consolations” that were reflected on the bodily level by sensations of heat, sweetness, drunkenness, lightness or liquefaction, which were described and analysed at length by the great 14th-c. mystics, particularly St Catherine of Siena and St Dorothea of Montau , or by their biographers. “ Extase ”, DSp , 4, 2, 1961, 2045-2189. P. Dinzelbacher , Dictionnaire de la mystique , Turnhout, 1993. André...

Sergius of Radonezh

Sergius of Radonezh (c.1314–1392)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
569 words

..., previously characterised by a certain volatility. The new foundations rapidly acquired important landed property ; the main ones, in the forefront of which was the Trinity, were among the greatest Russian proprietors until the secularization of their property by Catherine II in 1764 . Sergius was also a political abbot very close to the head of the Russian Church, metropolitan Alexis ( 1354–1377 ), the Russian princes and in particular the grand prince of Moscow , Dmitrii Ivanovič Donskoi ( 1359–1389 ), whose interests he often...

Sanctity

Sanctity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,279 words

... miracles , which were subjected to a critical examination. From the late 13th c., the process of interiorization would merely accelerate: most of the saints of this period were either mystics enjoying Visions and revelations like St Bridget of Sweden († 1373 ) or St Catherine of Siena († 1380 ), or else great theologians or illustrious preachers like St Thomas Aquinas († 1274 ) or St Bernardino of Siena († 1444 ). But the Christian people found it very hard to follow this evolution and remained attached to more traditional models, like those...

church history

church history   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,513 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as servants of the French king. Institutional authority broke down further in the face of absentee clerics who held multiple church offices and provided inadequate religious guidance. The popularity of *pilgrimages and the cult of the saints were revived, and mystics like *Catherine of Siena and Meister *Eckhart became influential. The *laity found alternate means of spiritual consolation, joining lay brotherhoods or the Beguines, a semi-monastic woman’s movement ( see beghards and beguines ). Despite these difficulties, the church remained one of...

Palestine

Palestine   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,428 words

...to follow, from Clysma-Suez to Mount Sinai , the itinerary of the Exodus of the Hebrews out of Egypt. In 557 Justinian would build at the foot of Mount Sinai, on the presumed site of the Burning Bush (Ex 3), the fortified monastery that in the 9th c. took the name of St Catherine. Justinian's reign was further marked by the numerous construction of churches, monasteries and hospices in Palestine. Palestinian monasticism at this period underwent a great development, particularly in the region to the east and south-east of Jerusalem (the desert of...

Eremitism

Eremitism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,460 words
Illustration(s):
1

...internazionale di studio, Mendola, 30 agosto – 6 settembre 1962 , Milan, 1965. “ Eremita ”, DIP , 3, 1976, 1153 f. H. Leyser , Hermits and the New Monasticism. A study of Religious Communities in Western Europe 1000-1150 , London, 1984. G.-M. Oury , Les Moines , Paris, 1987. Catherine...

mysticism

mysticism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,965 words

...frameworks, ungraspable, the mystical experience could moreover have political implications. In the Dialogue of divine Providence , Catherine of Siena († 1380 ) described the soul 's journey towards union with the holy Trinity , but her main concern, expressed in her 382 letters , was the reform of the Church and the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome . Like Bridget of Sweden († 1373 ), Catherine was a prophetess and “mystic of the Church”; at the heart of her religious experience, she had discovered the Church at the same time as ...

Translations, Translators

Translations, Translators   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,686 words

...for medieval mystical literature: among the translations printed in the 1500s by order of Cardinal Cisneros may be remarked not just John Climacus and St Gregory , but also St Anselm , St Bonaventure , Hugh of Balma , Ludolf of Saxony , Mechthild of Magdeburg , Catherine of Siena , Angelo of Foligno and the Imitation of Christ . And the first book printed in Portuguese was also a translation of Ludolf of Saxony's Vita Christi . Prosatori minori del Trecento , t. 1, Scrittori di religione, G. de Luca (ed.), Milan-Naples, 1954....

Avignon

Avignon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,111 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the inhabitants put their city on its feet again. CONVENTS were even founded outside the walls, in particular those of the Dominicans , Franciscans , Augustinians and Carmelites , near the gates. Other houses like those of the nuns of St Lawrence, St Clare or St Catherine, the buildings of the commandery of St John and the hospitallers of St Anthony, and numerous hospitals arose intra muros . It was at this time that the peaceful little city – which numbered some 6000 inhabitants at the start of the 14th c. – experienced a prodigious event:...

Marriage

Marriage   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,643 words
Illustration(s):
1

...love , marriage and life in the Holy Spirit. As for teaching on the “ends” or “benefits” ( bona ) of marriage, it evolved in a variable way in the course of the whole Middle Ages and sometimes in a single theologian, like St Thomas Aquinas. Marriage . Relief of the font, St Catherine's chapel, St Stephen's, Vienna. E. M. Makowski , “The Conjugal Debt and Medieval Canon Law”, JMH , 3, 1977, 99-114. J. Leclercq , Monks on marriage: a twelfth-century view , New York, 1982. “ L'Amour et le mariage selon les lettres d'Yves de Chartres ”, StCan , 22, 1983,...

women

women   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,147 words

...(Margaret of Cortona), in the symbolic recovery and practice of spiritual motherhood ( Umiltà of Faenza, Vanna of Orvieto, Clare of Montefalco ), in the “madness” of faith ( Angela of Foligno), in salvation as woman ( Willema of Bohemia ), in the forgotten mercy of God ( Catherine of Siena ). The unquiet spiritual phenomena that pervaded the 12th and 13th cc. – think of the active role played by women in developing the heretical communities of Waldensians , Cathars , Dolcinians , Amalricians , Guillemites – posed grave problems for the church...

Dominicans

Dominicans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,982 words

...by the Minors and the Preachers. In 1285 , master Munio de Zamora offered them the Rule of the Ordo de poenitentia S. Dominici which incorporated them into the Preachers. Fraternities multiplied in the 15th c., as did secular and regular Third Orders , in the light of St Catherine of Siena († 1380 ) and after the confirmation of the Rule by the pope ( 1405 , 1439 ). The Preachers' presence in the world, their competence and morality, made them suitable for all sorts of office in the Church. The episcopate that Dominic , wishing to preach only in ...

Hagiography

Hagiography   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,766 words

...announcements, various paramystical phenomena. The most accomplished examples of this hagiography, whose circulation was quite limited, were the Lives of the Beguine saints of the Netherlands , in the 13th c., and those of St Margaret of Cortona († 1297 ) and St Catherine of Siena († 1380 ) in Italy . At the end of the Middle Ages, hagiographical literature in its various forms was widespread in all circles. It comprised both fabulous accounts of mysterious or fictitious personages and spiritual biographies that constituted what we would...

France

France   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
10,187 words
Illustration(s):
2

...he then had. Although intended to promote imperial unity when he died, his ordonnance created friction and jealousy, particularly given the ambitions of Louis ’s nephew Bernard —son of Charlemagne ’s son Pepin of Aquitaine ( 800–38 )—whom Charlemagne had entrusted with *Italy . Dissension led to rebellion, ruthlessly repressed, and to Louis ’s *penance in 822 for Bernard ’s blinding and death in 818 . The situation was further complicated by the birth of Charles (later called ‘the Bald’) to Louis ’s second wife in 823 . Between 829 and...

Visions in medieval art

Visions in medieval art   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Getty Mus., MSS 30–31), made by Simon Marmion ( c . 1425–89 ) for Margaret of York. Hagiographic works are particularly noted for their representation of visionary dreams, unambiguous signs of sainthood in the legends of Anthony , Augustine , Benedict , Bernard of Clairvaux , Bruno , Catherine of Siena , Dominic , Edward the Confessor , Romuald , and Thomas Aquinas , for example. Key moments in the life of St Francis are marked by visions, such as his hearing his calling fom the painted crucifix at S Damiano, Pope Innocent III ’s dream insisting...

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