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Catherine Bernard

(1663–1712?), French novelist, playwright, and poet. Born in Rouen to a comfortable Huguenot family, she moved to Paris to pursue her literary interests. Bernard wrote four ...

Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica   Reference library

Charlotte Beck, Thomas W. Killion, Barbara Voorhies, Jon Lohse, D. C. Grove, Arlen F. Chase, Deborah L. Nichols, Frances F. Berdan, Thomas H. Charlton, Janine Gasco, and William R. Fowler

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
15,106 words

... Tula, the Toltec Capital of Ancient Mexico , 1983. Diehl, Richard A. , and Janet Catherine Berlo , eds. Mesoamerica After the Decline of Teotihuacan A.D. 700–900 , 1989. Flannery, Kent V. , and Joyce Marcus . The Cloud People: Divergent Evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec Civilizations , 1983. Healan, Dan M. , ed. Tula of the Toltecs: Excavations and Survey , 1989. López Luján , Leonardo. The Offerings of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan , translated by Bernard R. Ortiz de Montellano and Thelma Ortiz de Montellano, rev. ed., 2005. Mastache,...

Institut Français d'Études Anatoliennes D'Istanbul

Institut Français d'Études Anatoliennes D'Istanbul   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
417 words

...Varia Anatolica, 6. Paris, 1995. Rémy, Bernard , ed. Anatolia Antiqua/Eski Anadolu . 2 vols. Collection Varia Anatolica, 1. Paris, 1987–1988. Rémy, Bernard. Les carrières sénatoriales dans les provinces romaines d'Anatolie au Haut-Empire (31 av. J.-C.-284 ap. J.-C.): Pont-Bithynie, Galatie, Cappadoce, Lycie-Pamphylie et Cilicie . Collection Varia Anatolica, 2. Istanbul, 1989. Rémy, Bernard , ed. Pontica I: Recherches sur l'histoire du Pont dans l'antiquité . Collection Varia Anatolica, 5. St. Étienne, 1991. Catherine Abadie-Reynal Translated from French by ...

Monasteries

Monasteries   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
5,923 words

...in Egypt was the shrine of St. Menas at the town of Abu Mina (Mareotis; Grossman, 1986 ). Sinai. The small monasteries and hermitages in the Sinai desert have been studied extensively in recent years (Finkelstein, 1985 ; Tsafrir, 1993 ; Dahari, in press), as has the St. Catherine Monastery (see below). Uzi Dahari (Tsafrir, ed.; 1993 ) recorded seventy monastic sites in the high mountains of Sinai, seventeen of which appear in the literary sources. He estimates the population of monks in Sinai to have been about six hundred at the apogee of monastic...

Bone, Ivory, and Shell

Bone, Ivory, and Shell   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
11,558 words
Illustration(s):
12

...and later periods (up to the tenth century) was the influence of miniature painting as a source for theme and style (cf., e.g., the plaque showing “The Washing of the Feet,” now in Berlin at the Staatliche Museen, with the painted icon of the same theme in the Monastery of St. Catherine in the Sinai Desert). Among the most notable masterpieces of late imperial art in carved ivory is the series of diptychs—double small tables joined by hinges, carved on their exterior face, and covered on the interior with wax for writing—used as gifts for special state...

Colonial History and Historiography

Colonial History and Historiography   Reference library

Marie-Albane de Suremain

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,592 words

...2008. Enders, Armelle . Histoire de L’Afrique Lusophone . Paris: Chandeigne, 1994. Hall, Catherine . Cultures of Empire: A Reader; Colonizers in Britain and the Empire in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries . Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2000. Hopkins, Anthony G. Globalization in World History . New York: W. W. Norton, 2002. Parry, Benita . Postcolonial Studies: A Materialist Critique . London: Routledge, 2004. Porter, Bernard . The Absent-Minded Imperialists: Empire, Society and Culture in Britain . Oxford: Oxford...

The Bantu Expansion

The Bantu Expansion   Reference library

Koen Bostoen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,201 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 35. Bernard Clist , “Vers une réduction des préjugés et la fonte des antagonismes: Un bilan de l’expansion de la métallurgie du fer en Afrique sub-saharienne,” Journal of African Archaeology 10, no. 1 (2012): 71–84; “Mais où se sont taillées nos pierres en Afrique Centrale entre 7.000 et 2.000 BP,” in Grundlegungen: Beiträge zur europäischen und afrikanischen Archäologie für Manfred K.H. Eggert , ed. Hans-Peter Wotzka (Tübingen, Germany: Francke Attempto, 2006), 291–302; Oslisly et al., “Climatic and Cultural Changes”; Bernard Clist , “Our...

Early African Pasts: Sources, Interpretations, Meanings

Early African Pasts: Sources, Interpretations, Meanings   Reference library

David Schoenbrun

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
20,354 words
Illustration(s):
5

...particularly rich; see David Lewis Williams, The Mind in the Cave: Consciousness and the Origins of Art (London: Thames & Hudson, 2002); Augustin Holl, Saharan Rock Art: Archaeology of Tassilian Pastoralist Iconography (Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 2004); and Catherine Namono, Catherine, “Resolving the Authorship of the Geometric Rock Art of Uganda,” Journal of African Archaeology 8 (2010): 239–257 . 52. The scholar-traveler Ibn Battuta’s writings are famous in this genre; see Ross E. Dunn, The Adventures of Ibn Battuta: A Muslim Traveler of the...

Migration History and Historiography

Migration History and Historiography   Reference library

Benedetta Rossi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
16,419 words

...served political and economic ends. 109 Immanuel Wallerstein observed that, as an economic and political strategy, immigrants were forming ethno-professional communities in their new context, and that this process was a step toward the development of class consciousness. 110 Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch also saw the growing mass of migrant labor as “a ‘working class’ in the making.” 111 Richard Roberts and others, however, objected that the division between urban workers and rural-to-urban migrants hindered the development of class-consciousness. 112 There has...

Atlantic Slavery and the Slave Trade: History and Historiography

Atlantic Slavery and the Slave Trade: History and Historiography   Reference library

Daniel B. Domingues da Silva and Philip Misevich

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
15,685 words

...of the dynamics of the plantation enterprise. Social relations within plantation households commanded particular attention. Some scholars emphasized bonds between black and white women whose lives, they argued, were conditioned by a shared and oppressive patriarchal culture. Catherine Clinton, for example, characterized white mistresses as “trapped” within plantation society. “Cotton was King, white men ruled, and both white women and slaves served the same master,” she argued. 67 While she sympathized with the plight of plantation mistresses, Elizabeth...

Archaeological Methods and Sources

Archaeological Methods and Sources   Reference library

Peter Mitchell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,472 words

...and the Nyau Secret Society of Central Malawi and Eastern Zambia,” African Archaeological Review 18 (2001): 187–212; and Leslie Zubieta, The Rock Art of Mwana wa Chentcherere II Rock Shelter, Malawi (Leiden, The Netherlands: African Studies Centre, 2006). On Uganda, see Catherine Namono, “Soaring Spirits: Rock Art, Initiation and the Sor Secret Society of Spirit Mediums of Karamoja, Uganda,” Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 52 (2017): 283–304. On Kenya/Tanzania, see Richard Gramly, “Meat-Feasting Sites and Cattle Brands: Patterns of...

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