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Catherine Bernard

(1663–1712?), French novelist, playwright, and poet. Born in Rouen to a comfortable Huguenot family, she moved to Paris to pursue her literary interests. Bernard wrote four ...

Palissy, Bernard

Palissy, Bernard  

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(c.1510–1590), French potter, garden theorist, virtuoso, scientist, fantasist, and author.His book Recepte véritable, par laquelle tous les hommes de la France pourront apprendre à muliplier et ...
Falconet, Étienne-Maurice

Falconet, Étienne-Maurice (1716–91)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
313 words

...called to St Petersburg by Catherine II to undertake the bronze equestrian monument to Peter the Great. Nothing in Falconet's previous work prepares for the grand proto-Romantic originality of the statue, which, with great technical mastery, depicts the founder of modern Russia calm on a rearing horse. The pedestal, which is without the usual allegorical accoutrements, seems roughly hewn from the living rock overlooking the river Neva. The statue was taken as a model by David for his portrait of Napoleon at the St Bernard (Malmaison, Mus. Nat.) and...

Lippi, Filippino

Lippi, Filippino (c. 1457–1504)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
307 words

...of the Portinari altarpiece by Hugo van der Goes . Other devotional paintings, such as the Vision of S. Bernard (Florence, Badia) and Virgin and Child with SS Jerome and Dominic (London, NG), both c. 1485–7 , add to their poetic lyricism an increasing solidity and concern for anatomical detail, as in S. Jerome's musculature in the London picture. This culminated in late works which are even more volumetric and monumental (the Marriage of S. Catherine , 1501 ; Bologna, S. Domenico). Filippino received important commissions for frescoes in Rome (Caraffa...

Bartolommeo, Fra

Bartolommeo, Fra (1472–1517)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
315 words

... produced the Vision of S. Bernard (Florence, Uffizi), shifting the orientation of the scene and emphasizing transcendental qualities through the emotional responses of the figures. From 1504 to 1509 he developed in parallel with Raphael , each artist contributing to the High Renaissance concept of a dynamic yet unified altarpiece. After Raphael's departure Fra Bartolommeo and his partner Albertinelli received some of the most important commissions in Florence, including the Mystic Marriage of S. Catherine for S. Marco ( 1511 ; Paris, Louvre)...

Palissy, Bernard

Palissy, Bernard (1510)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,274 words

...Rev. A. , 78 (1987) [issue dedicated to Palissy] Bernard Palissy, mythe et réalité (exh. cat., Agen, Mus. B.-A., 1990–91) Y. de Kisch : ‘Bernard Palissy, images archéologiques et littéraires du roi et de la cour’, Représentation pouvoir et royauté à la fin du Moyen: Le Mans, 1994 , pp. 295–311 L. N. Amico : A la recherche du paradis terrestre: Bernard Palissy et ses continuateurs (Paris, 1996) L. N. Amico : ‘ Beastly Feasts ’, F.M.R. Mag. , lxxxix (Dec–Jan 1997–8), pp. 105–28 H. Bollman : ‘ Bernard de Palissy: The Potter's Potter ’, Cer. Mthly ,...

Huguenots

Huguenots   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
803 words

...I ( See Du cerceau , (1), who was highly influential in promoting classical styles through his books on architecture and ornament; and bernard Palissy , who worked as a glass painter and surveyor before experimenting with tin-glazed pottery. He produced a grotto at the château of Ecouen for Anne, Duc de Montmorency, Constable of France, in 1548 and another ( c. 1567 ) at the Jardin des Tuileries for Catherine de’ Medici. The latter commission protected him from persecution during the late 1560s. Huguenot worship placed great emphasis on preaching: the...

Vasa

Vasa   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,506 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and wood-carver, grandson of (1) Gustav I. He was the son of John III , King of Sweden ( reg 1568–92 ), and Catherine Jagiellon ( 1526–83 ), daughter of Sigismund I (Sigismund the Old), King of Poland; he became the elected King of Poland in 1587 and in 1594 also became hereditary King of Sweden. Educated at the court in Stockholm by the Swede Nils Rasch , the Livonian Arnold Grothus ( c. 1522–99 ) and the Polish Jesuit Pakosz Bernard Gołyński ( 1546–99 ), Sigismund was a learned man and spoke several languages. Initially he had his court in...

Paris

Paris   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
5,402 words
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1

...of Catherine's garden contained features such as fountains, a maze and an enormous sundial. Some compartments contained fruit trees, and there were also trees planted in quincunx, with one tree at each corner and the fifth in the middle; the decussation (if viewed from above) was significant in the numerology of the period, and the feature subsequently appeared in English gardens of the 16th and 17th centuries. Elsewhere in Catherine's garden there was a ceramic grotto decorated with terracotta figures by the potter and naturalist bernard Palissy . In...

Stained glass

Stained glass   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,670 words
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2

...restore artistic and liturgical aspects of Catholicism. Many windows were made in the 1620s and 1630s by Bernard van Linge ( b c. 1600 ) and Abraham van Linge ( fl 1625–41 ), originally from Emden, in Germany; Bernard introduced from Paris the continental style of painting enamel pigments on to clear glass rectangular panes, thereby eliminating the design role of the leads. Their work survives in various Oxford and Cambridge college chapels; Bernard glazed Wadham Chapel ( 1622 ), Oxford; from 1628 to 1641 Abraham painted windows for the college chapels...

Vellert [Felaert; Vellaert; Staren, van], Dirk [Dieric] (Jacobszoon)

Vellert [Felaert; Vellaert; Staren, van], Dirk [Dieric] (Jacobszoon) (c.1480–85)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,471 words
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3

...by Claes Mathyssen at the church of St Catherine at Hoogstraeten. These windows show similarities in composition and figure type to the glass at King's College and Lübeck. Although Vellert's prints did not have the enormous impact of those of either Dürer or Lucas van Leyden, they were often copied by artists such as the Master S and Allaert Claez . They were also frequently used as patterns for glass roundels, and a stained-glass window in the church of Conches, near Evreux, is based on the Vision of St Bernard . Hollstein : Dut. & Flem . L....

L’Orme [Delorme], Philibert de

L’Orme [Delorme], Philibert de (June 1514)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
4,483 words
Illustration(s):
2

...or celestial globe. (iii) Works for Catherine de’ Medici, 1563–70. Two days after Henry II's unexpected death on 10 July 1559 , de L’Orme was dismissed from his royal post and replaced by Francesco Primaticcio . This was perhaps the result of intrigues by the powerful Lorraine faction at court, but de L’Orme's tight control over the royal building works and the arrogant exercise of his powers had made him many enemies. As early as 1557 Pierre Ronsard had published some satirical verses aimed at him, and the potter Bernard Palissy recorded de L’Orme's...

Traut (von Speyer)

Traut (von Speyer)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,516 words

...wings of the SS Peter and Paul altarpiece (Heilsbronn Minister; sculpted shrine (central panel) and interior wings 1510 ), which show he was familiar with von Kulmbach's wings of a SS Peter and Paul altarpiece ( c. 1510 ; Florence, Uffizi). Traut's wings from a St Catherine altarpiece (Bamberg, Neue Residenz, Staatsgal.) date from 1516–18 . He painted the wings (posthumously dated 1521 ) of the high altarpiece of Nuremberg's Rochuskapelle and possibly designed its sculpted shrine (central panel) and ornamental detail. In his portraits Traut...

Jagiellon [Lithuanian: Jogailaičiai; Polish: Jagiełłonowie], House of

Jagiellon [Lithuanian: Jogailaičiai; Polish: Jagiełłonowie], House of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,406 words

...) from Nuremberg to execute sumptuous armour for a horse and rider (Stockholm, Livrustkam.). An important part of the King's collection comprised textiles imported from the Near East and the Netherlands; he also engaged Armenian embroiderers. On the occasion of his marriage to Catherine of Habsburg ( 1533–72 ) in 1553 the interior of Wawel Castle, Kraków, was adorned with 132 carpets recently brought from Turkey and the collection of tapestries inherited from his parents or imported from Brussels from 1549 . The tapestries numbered about 350 in 1573 ; only...

Brosse, Salomon de

Brosse, Salomon de (c.1571)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,355 words
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1

... (Rome, 1562 ) and by the suite of Mannerist gateway designs appended to that treatise. Blérancourt was built for Bernard Potier, whose wife, Charlotte de Vieuxpont, was an active and learned patron. She had travelled in Italy, collected architectural drawings and admired Vignola's work, and she stipulated in the contracts that there should be correct classical detail at Blérancourt. The château of Coulommiers was begun in 1613 for Catherine de Gonzague, Duchesse de Longueville. It was built on a badly chosen site and was an over-ambitious project;...

Metalcut

Metalcut   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,810 words

...sometimes accompanied by an escutcheon with a compass, on engravings in very different styles and of uneven quality. Several derive their inspiration from the Master of the Berlin Passion. As well as the masters mentioned above, there are the Monogrammist I, the Master of St Catherine ( fl c. 1460–75 ), and three copper plates, still preserved, which constitute extremely interesting documents for the study of techniques and the interpretation of metalcuts. One of the plates, of St John and St Paul (Paris, Louvre; see A. Blum: Les Origines du papier, de...

Metalcut

Metalcut   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,902 words

...sometimes accompanied by an escutcheon with a compass, on engravings in very different styles and of uneven quality. Several derive their inspiration from the Master of the Berlin Passion. As well as the masters mentioned above, there are the Monogrammist I, the Master of St Catherine (   fl c . 1460–75 ), and three copper plates, still preserved, which constitute extremely interesting documents for the study of techniques and the interpretation of metalcuts. One of the plates, of St John and St Paul (Paris, Musée du Louvre; see A. Blum: Les Origines du...

Valois, House of

Valois, House of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
11,308 words
Illustration(s):
8

...at Fontainebleau, Nicolò dell’Abate and Ruggiero de Ruggieri ( d 1596 ), as well as the French Dumonstier family and Antoine Caron . The inventory drawn up after Catherine's death reveals the extent of her collections, which included, among other objects, a library of 4500 volumes, 259 painted enamels, including 32 portraits set into the panelling of a room, 141 pieces of ceramics by Bernard Palissy (who had also created a rustic grotto (destr.) for the Jardins des Tuileries), tapestries, antiquities and all kinds of precious objects. Among surviving...

Kriechbaum

Kriechbaum   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
3,201 words

...with the knights dated 1482 from the so-called Ulm ‘Fischkasten’ (Ulm, Ulm. Mus.), which suggests that Paul was trained in the workshops of Jörg Syrlin and Michel and Gregor Erhart at Ulm. Among his best works in this style, besides the figures of St Barbara and St Catherine in the pinnacle work at Kefermarkt, are two figures from Heiligenblut (Pöggstall, Parish Church) and the figures of the Virgin in Windigsteig (see (2) above) and the Badisches Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe. The unusual movement in the pose of the Karlsruhe Virgin is still deeply...

Fouquet [Foucquet], Jean

Fouquet [Foucquet], Jean (c.1425)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
5,272 words
Illustration(s):
4

...be one of these, perhaps for a service in an oratory. Since Fouquet was not the official painter to the King, the commission may have come from a member of the court, from Jacques Coeur, for example, or from Jean Bernard, Archbishop of Tours ( d 1466 ), one of Fouquet's documented patrons, who could have obtained connections for him at court. Bernard's will mentions a commission from Fouquet for an altarpiece of the Assumption (untraced) for the church in Caudes (Indre-et-Loire). Another portrait by Fouquet of Charles VII ( d 1461 ), known through a copy...

France

France   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
21,076 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the 16th century, Constable anne de Montmorency employed Jean Bullant as architect at the châteaux of Ecouen ( 1556–78 ), Chantilly and La Fère-en-Tardenois ( 1552–62 ), Picardy, and Catherine de’ Medici ( see Valois , (10), widow of Henry II, used him to build the Hôtel de Soissons in Paris, with its distinctive observatory in the form of a colossal column. Catherine also sustained the theoretical publications of Jacques Androuet Du Cerceau the elder. Henry IV ( reg 1589–1610 ; see Bourbon , (5) restored the crown's stability and made numerous...

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