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Carlo Rubbia

(1934–) Italian physicist Born at Gorizia, Trieste, Rubbia was educated at the University of Pisa, where he obtained his PhD in 1958. After spending a year each at Columbia, New ...

collider

collider   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
836 words

...these advances, physicists built colliders at all leading high-energy physics laboratories. Especially noteworthy was a proton-antiproton collider built at CERN as an upgrade of its existing Super Proton Synchroton, stimulated by ideas and inventions of Peter McIntyre , Carlo Rubbia , and Simon Van der Meer . By observing proton-antiproton collisions at total energies of up to 540 GeV in 1982–1983 , two teams of physicists discovered the massive W and Z bosons, the mediators of weak interactions and key elements of the standard model . These...

Lattes, Cesar

Lattes, Cesar (1924–2005)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,031 words

...of electromagnetic and weak forces, in which he predicted the boson Z o . The boson Z o is a subatomic particle with integral spin and mass 91 GeV. It is the carrier of the weak, but fundamental, force of nature. Confirmation of the prediction at CERN by a team led by Carlo Rubbia and Simon Van der Meer brought them the Nobel Prize . For his part Leite Lopes received the 1993 Mexican Prize for Science. It is widely believed in Latin America that he should have shared the Nobel Prize with Rubia and Van der Meer. Leite Lopes originated much of the...

Higgs bosons

Higgs bosons   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,638 words

...would unleash far greater energy for the manufacture of novel particles. ‘To choose between the possibilities for new machines is like playing a very slow game of chess, in which CERN may be allowed a decisive move perhaps once every ten years,’ the boss of the European lab, Carlo Rubbia, commented in 1990 . ‘Retaining a position of leadership in the most fundamental of the sciences is vital for Europe's intellectual and cultural life, and for its self-confidence in a scientific age.’ Although not quite in the SSC class, the LHC seemed the best prospect for...

elementary particles

elementary particles   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,892 words

...proved in a rigorous fashion, non-perturbative calculations point to the correctness of the assumption. The past two decades have seen many successful explanations of high-energy phenomena using QCD. The detection and identification of the W ± and of the Z 0 in 1983 by Carlo Rubbia and coworkers at CERN gave further confirmation. Similarly, the empirical data obtained in lepton and photon deep inelastic scattering, and in the study of jets in high energy collisions, can be accounted for quantitatively by QCD. Furthermore, computer simulations have...

Electroweak force

Electroweak force   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,893 words

...of the W and Z particles predicted by the electroweak theory. Carlo Rubbia , an Italian physicist at CERN, was the most vocal in calling for such a collider to be built. It would mean halting existing research programmes. There was no guarantee that the collider would work properly, still less that it would make the intended discoveries. ‘Would cautious administrators and committees entrusted with public funds from many countries overcome their inhibitions and take a very expensive gamble?’ Rubbia wrote later. ‘Europe passed the test magnificently.’ CERN's...

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