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Campaign Against Racial Discrimination

Group set up in 1965 to campaign against racism in Britain. Britain had entered testing phase in the immediate post‐Second World War period: the black population had increased enormously, ...

Race And Medicine

Race And Medicine   Reference library

Karen Kruse Thomas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and the Fight against Medical Discrimination . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2011. Paschal, George W., Jr. “What Medicare Means to Us.” North Carolina Medical Journal 26, no. 9 (1965): 411. Reverby, Susan M. Examining Tuskegee: The Infamous Syphilis Study and Its Legacy . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009. Reverby, Susan M. , ed. Tuskegee’s Truths: Rethinking the Tuskegee Syphilis Study . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000. Satcher, David . “Our Commitment to Eliminate Racial and Ethnic Health...

Medicine

Medicine   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers, Eric Howard Christianson, John Harley Warner, Harry M. Marks, Harry M. Marks, and Naomi Rogers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...campaigns against hookworm and pellagra, most rural counties in the South remained without full-time health officers until Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal. As late as 1940 , the heavily rural and African American states of South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama reported some of the nation’s highest rates of typhoid and enteritis mortality. Local initiatives sometimes countered the effects of regional poverty and prejudice. African American women in Atlanta, Georgia, and Salisbury, North Carolina, for example, launched antituberculosis campaigns that...

Scientific Racism and North American Psychology

Scientific Racism and North American Psychology   Reference library

Andrew S. Winston

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
11,452 words

... Introduction Since the 1930s, American psychologists have played an important role in exploring the nature of prejudice and in the fight against racial injustice (e.g., Pettigrew, 2011 ). However, psychologists have also played a major role in the promotion of “scientific racism,” defined here as the use of scientific concepts and data to create and justify ideas of an enduring, biologically based racial hierarchy. This practice became part of American psychology in the early 1900s and has persisted to the present. The term “scientific racism” is...

Intersectionality and the History of Psychology

Intersectionality and the History of Psychology   Reference library

Alexandra Rutherford and Tal Davidson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
10,857 words

...and racial (in)equality, such as the testimony of African American college student Betty Jean Owens who was raped by four White men in 1959 and the trial of Joan Little in 1975 who was accused (and subsequently acquitted) of murdering her White jailor with an ice pick when he attempted to rape her. By foregrounding these women’s experiences, McGuire shows that long before now well-known White radical feminists urged women to “speak out” against rape, African American women’s public—and highly risky—protests sparked “larger campaigns for racial justice...

The Legacy of Recapitulation Theory in the History of Developmental Psychology

The Legacy of Recapitulation Theory in the History of Developmental Psychology   Reference library

Donna Varga

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
9,614 words

...violent tendencies ( Varga, 2018 ). The racial divide was also used to rationalize and encourage Euro-Anglo male violence against non-Whites, with the explanation that, in his race’s supremacy in the struggle for survival, he had evolved into “the exterminator par excellence” and therefore had a natural inclination to want to destroy those who were different, especially the “inferior” ( Hall, 1904 , Vol. 2, p. 93). The Gender Divide Second only to concern with establishing developmental truths about racial distinctions was with how the ontological...

Feminist Psychologies in India

Feminist Psychologies in India   Reference library

Vindhya Undurti

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
10,368 words

...model as envisaged in the new Mental Health Act. Some of the other adverse features of the system pointed out by the report were poor infrastructure, absence of penal action against the violators of the law, and inadequate professional:patient ratio ( Nagaraja & Murthy, 2008 ). Importantly for women’s mental health, the NHRC report pointed to evidence of discrimination against women in the mental health system in the form of fewer beds and closed wards for women; fewer visitors and with higher risk of desertion and homelessness, custody of children, and...

History of Social Psychology at Mid-20th Century

History of Social Psychology at Mid-20th Century   Reference library

Thomas F. Pettigrew

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
11,992 words

...In particular, gender issues were neglected. In many ways, this reflected discrimination against women in the larger society. Prior to the 1960s, men dominated and this shaped the discipline’s interests and work. The late 20th century’s rapid increase of women led to a vast expansion of research on gender issues. Long neglected, both laboratory and field studies began to detail the operation of social psychological processes operating in gender attitudes, interaction, and discrimination. We can trace this new interest in the specialized issues of the Journal of...

Feminist Psychology in North America

Feminist Psychology in North America   Reference library

Kate Sheese

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
10,853 words

...in the women’s liberation movement, and her earliest research ( 1973 ) on sex roles demonstrated that sex-biased job ads “aided and abetted” sex discrimination in women’s recruitment into the workforce. Based on this research, her expert testimony in landmark legal cases contributed to changes in sex-biased recruitment practices ( George, 2012 ). Bem’s subsequent work extended Constantinople’s (1973) argument against the measurement of masculinity and femininity as opposite ends of a bipolar continuum, suggesting that individuals could adopt both traits. Bem...

The Social Psychology of Sex and Gender

The Social Psychology of Sex and Gender   Reference library

Peter Hegarty and Emma Sarter

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
10,580 words

...that U.S. discrimination law could tolerate greater protection from discrimination for either White women or Black men over Black women, but was intolerant of particular legal protection for Black women. Crenshaw described how both constructions of Black women as similar to, and different from, White women could be used to defer recognition of what she called intersectional discrimination. By emphasizing what was most common to gender roles, stereotypes, and gender differences (in opposition to “sex”), staying within a postpositivist discourse that...

Biographies of a Scientific Subject: The Intelligence Test

Biographies of a Scientific Subject: The Intelligence Test   Reference library

Annette Mülberger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
11,634 words

...and foreign immigrants. Kamin ( 1974 ) , Gould ( 1981 ) , Greenwood ( 2015 ) , and others pointed out two consequences of the Army testing. First, the testing consolidated psychology’s status as a science and a profession. 10 Second, it led to the justification of racial discrimination and segregation in higher education, as well as to the wording and final approval of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924 . 11 Moreover, the combination of testing with eugenic purposes is thought to have led in 1927 to the infamous ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court,...

LGBTQ Psychology

LGBTQ Psychology   Reference library

Peter Hegarty

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
11,297 words

...political opponents argued against recognizing the effects of prejudice, in such areas as youth mental health (particularly suicide), employment discrimination, and hate crimes. In making these topics part of the field of lesbian and gay psychology, psychologists often worked with lesbian and gay organizations and against a political and legal climate that was mobilized to resist this recognition of prejudice (see Hegarty, 2018 ). Social psychologists have sometimes reflected that they come to study prejudice against social groups when such prejudice...

Climate Change Communication and Indigenous Publics

Climate Change Communication and Indigenous Publics   Reference library

Candis Callison

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...people are not a monolithic category, and have both diverse and common experiences and situations. Many indigenous people are likely to have suffered enormous upheaval in recent centuries due to colonialism, resource development, economic shifts, displacement, assimilation, discrimination, loss of human rights, and lack of self-determination ( Nakashima et al., 2012 ; Norton-Smith et al., 2016 ). In many regions, climate change is the latest entry in long and difficult encounters with colonialism and capitalism that have involved relocation and the...

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