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Bradford Hill criteria

[A. B. Hill (1897–1991), British medical statistician] A set of nine criteria used to determine the strength of an association between a disease and its supposed causative agent. They form ...

Peace Research

Peace Research   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
18,125 words

...and environmental justice. Department for Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK The Department of Peace Studies at the University of Bradford is one of the leading institutions in the field. The department was established in 1973 , and since then its international reputation has managed to attract on average 400 students from around the world. The department has a comprehensive research mandate with the following centers: the Africa Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies; the Bradford Disarmament Research Centre; the Centre for Conflict Resolution; the...

Gandhi

Gandhi   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
10,411 words

...and Power: Propaganda and the Press in the Indian Nationalist Struggle, 1920–1947 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Overy, Bob . Gandhi as a Political Organiser, In Challenge to Nonviolence, Issues in Peace Research , edited by Michael Randle. Bradford : University of Bradford, Department of Peace Studies, 2002. Parekh, Bikhu . Gandhi’s Political Philosophy: A Critical Examination . South Bend, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1989. Parekh, Bikhu . Gandhi: A Very Short Introduction . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. Powers,...

Life Span

Life Span   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...(18–20 years of age). In this study of 445 undergraduates of which, 89% were of European American descent, participants were asked to identify spirituality variables, criteria for adulthood, and whether they had achieved the criteria for adulthood status. Findings from that study suggest that religion is an influence on emerging adults particularly in the areas of behavior and some of the criteria recognized as signifying adulthood, for example, perception of family responsibilities and roles, and examination of personal beliefs. Milevsky ( 2004 ) posits that...

Literature

Literature   Reference library

Everett Emerson, Gary Ashwill, Gordon Hutner, Thomas H. Schaub, and Erin A. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...belles lettres. The writers of colonial America generally identified as most important to literature are William Bradford (1590–1657), Anne Bradstreet, Edward Taylor (c. 1644–1729), William Byrd II, Jonathan Edwards, Benjamin Franklin, and J. Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur, with others placed at a somewhat lower level: Cotton Mather, the African American poet Phillis Wheatley, and Captain John Smith, who is now recognized as a credible writer. Bradford's well-crafted history of the Plymouth colony (written c. 1630–1650) enjoys a preeminent place because of its...

Conflicting Information and Message Competition in Health and Risk Messaging

Conflicting Information and Message Competition in Health and Risk Messaging   Reference library

Rebekah H. Nagler and Susan M. LoRusso

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health and Risk Message Design and Processing

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
11,081 words
Illustration(s):
1

...findings. Specifically, the medical community bases its judgments on the “totality of the data” available across study designs ( Taubes, 2007 , para. 18). Sir Austin Bradford Hill ( Hill, 1971 ) and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force ( USPSTF, 1989 ), among others, have established criteria for causal inference in epidemiology. Some epidemiologists have argued that applying these criteria to specific nutritional epidemiologic questions, for example, would help to clarify findings that seem contradictory ( Kushi, 1999 ). While researchers and clinicians...

Hegemony in Foreign Policy

Hegemony in Foreign Policy   Reference library

Simon Reich and Richard Ned Lebow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Foreign Policy Analysis

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
13,385 words

...P. , & Reich, S. (2015). The strategy of sponsorship. Survival, 57 (5), 121–148. Doyle, M. (1986a). Empires . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Doyle, M. (1986b). Liberalism and world politics. American Political Science Review, 80 (4), 1151–1169. DeLong, J. Bradford , & Eichengreen, B. (2001). Between Meltdown and Moral Hazard: The International Monetary and Financial Policies of the Clinton Administration. National Bureau of Economic Research , Working paper 8443. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w8443 . International Commission...

Variations in the Adoption of Healthcare Innovation: A Literature Review

Variations in the Adoption of Healthcare Innovation: A Literature Review   Reference library

Marisa Miraldo, Katharina Hauck, Antoine Vernet, and Ana Wheelock

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
19,293 words

...E. , Lucas, F. L. , Staiger, D. , Wennberg, D. E. , & Chandra, A. (2005). Hospital-level racial disparities in acute myocardial infarction treatment and outcomes. Medical Care , 43 (4), 308. Barocas, D. A. , Liu, A. , Burks, F. N. , Suh, R. S. , Schuster, T. G. , Bradford, T. , … Miller, D. C. (2013). Practice based collaboration to improve the use of immediate intravesical therapy after resection of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Journal of Urology , 190 (6), 2011–2016. Barron, M. , & Kazandjian, V. A. (1992). Geographic variation in lumbar...

The Anthropology of Bureaucracy and Public Administration

The Anthropology of Bureaucracy and Public Administration   Reference library

Thomas Bierschenk and Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Public Administration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
16,495 words

...Sedimentations, fragmentations and normative double-binds in (West) African public services. In T. Bierschenk & J.-P. Olivier de Sardan (Eds.), States at work: Dynamics of African bureaucracies (pp. 221–245). Brill. Bierschenk, T. (2016). Police and state. In B. Bradford , B. Jauregui , I. Loader , & J. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of global policing (pp. 175–198). SAGE. Bierschenk, T. , & Olivier de Sardan, J.-P. (1997). ECRIS: Rapid collective inquiry for the identification of conflicts and strategic groups. Human Organization , 56 (2)...

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