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Bradford Hill criteria

[A. B. Hill (1897–1991), British medical statistician] A set of nine criteria used to determine the strength of an association between a disease and its supposed causative agent. They form ...

Adding Biodiversity to Agricultural Landscapes Through Ecology and Biotechnology

Adding Biodiversity to Agricultural Landscapes Through Ecology and Biotechnology   Reference library

David Still

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...the product. Worldwide, agencies that oversee the safety of GE crops regulate the process, not the product, bypassing consumers to make market choices and pre-empting the development of new products, especially non-commodity specialty crops ( Bradford, Van Deynze, Gutterson, Parrott, & Strauss, 2005 ; Miller & Bradford, 2010 ). While some may be alarmed that science has developed the ability to bioengineer crop plants, humans, as engineers, have changed the natural world to an extent that every ecosystem on Earth has been altered. The degradation of...

History of Evidence-Based Practice

History of Evidence-Based Practice   Reference library

Scott O. Lilienfeld and Candice Basterfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
13,615 words

...were blindfolded and asked which cigarette brand they preferred ( Meldrum, 2000 ). A second randomized blinded controlled trial was carried out by the MRC to evaluate streptomycin for treating pulmonary tuberculosis. The British statistician and epidemiologist Austin Bradford Hill ( 1897–1991 ) is credited with designing the trial. He replaced alternation with randomization to better disguise the allocation schedule from patients and experimenters. Pulmonary tuberculosis patients were assigned to the streptomycin treatment group and a no-treatment...

Crop Rotations, Fallowing, and Associated Environmental Benefits

Crop Rotations, Fallowing, and Associated Environmental Benefits   Reference library

Faisal Nadeem, Ahmad Nawaz, and Muhammad Farooq

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
16,400 words
Illustration(s):
2

...soil quality and reduces soil erosion ( Nielsen & Calderon, 2011 ). Crop residue cover in fallow land serves as an organic mulch that increases the moisture contents in soil and reduces evaporation losses and provides shelter for soil against wind and water erosion ( Smart & Bradford, 1999 ; Zribi, Aragüés, Medina, & Faci, 2015 ). Fallow fields covered with residue (80%–90%) protects soil from erosion ( Kline, 2000 ) by acting as barrier against wind and high-intensity rainfall, thus increasing water infiltration, reducing soil evaporation losses (...

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